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Creative Diagnostics
a leading manufacturer and supplier of antibodies, viral antigens, innovative diagnostic components and critical assay reagents
a leading manufacturer and supplier of antibodies, viral antigens, innovative diagnostic components and critical assay reagents

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Protein A Magnetic Beads from Creative Diagnostics
Absolute Mag™ Protein A Magnetic Particles. They are used in nucleic acid isolation, protein purification, immunology, and cell separations, especially used for the immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and real-time PCR to detect Escherichia coli. Otherwise, they are available impregnated with fluorophores for flow cytometry or easy bead location identification in phagocytosis assays.

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A scanning electron microscope image of a cervical cancer cell.
The first time molecular biologist Greg Hannon flew through a tumour, he was astonished — and inspired. Using a virtual-reality model, Hannon and his colleagues at the University of Cambridge, UK, flew in and out of blood vessels, took stock of infiltrating immune cells and hatched an idea for an unprecedented tumour atlas.

“Holy crap!” he recalls thinking. “This is going to be just amazing.”

On 10 February, the London-based charity Cancer Research UK announced that Hannon’s team of molecular biologists, astronomers and game designers would receive up to £20 million (US$25 million) over the next five years to develop its interactive virtual-reality map of breast cancers. The tumour that Hannon flew through was a mock-up, but the real models will include data on the expression of thousands of genes and dozens of proteins in each cell of a tumour. The hope is that this spatial and functional detail could reveal more about the factors that influence a tumour’s response to treatment.

The project is just one of a string that aims to build a new generation of cell atlases: maps of organs or tumours that describe location and make-up of each cell in painstaking detail.

Cancer Research UK awarded another team up to £16 million to make a similar tumour map that will focus on metabolites and proteins. Later this year, the US National Institute of Mental Health will announce the winners of grants to map mouse brains in extraordinary molecular detail. And on 23–24 February, researchers will gather at Stanford University in California to continue planning the Human Cell Atlas, an as-yet-unfunded effort to map every cell in the human body.

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Alphaviruses Antigens
Alphaviruses are transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods, typically the mosquito, and replicate in both arthropod and vertebrate hosts worldwide. Members of the genus are categorized into either the New World or Old World group based upon the area in which they are found and the disease they cause. Till now, this genus has more than 40 recognized members, which is responsible for human and animal diseases that cause symptoms such as fever, rash and arthritis. Well-studied members include Sindbis virus (SINV), Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and Ross River virus (RRV).

Creative Diagnostics has just released a series of Alpha viruses antigens including the capsid proteins, the nonstructural proteins and the envelope glycoproteins for relative research and hope to develop more efficient reagents to fight against this pandemic virus.

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What is tomato mosaic virus?
Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) is a member of family tobamoviridae and belongs to the genus tobamovirus, which is a plant pathogenic virus. It is found worldwide and affects tomatoes and many other wide host range plants including many agricultural crops and weeds such as tobacco and beans, all of which can serve as inoculum sources. The tomato crop is highly susceptible to the Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). The symptoms vary from tiles, wrinkle, reduction and curvature of leaflets, and irregular ripening of fruits. This disease requires attention because of its easy dissemination by contact, cultural practices, or contaminated seed.

Structure of Tomato Mosaic Virus

ToMV has a rod shaped structure, about 300 nm length and 18 nm radius. ToMV has its genetic material enclosed in a protein coat. Tomato mosaic virus encodes four different proteins important for virus replication and movement, they are 180kDa /RNA dependent RNA polymerase, 130kDa/ Methyltransferase/Helicase, 30kDa/ Movement protein and 18kDa/Coat protein. The two proteins involved in replication are encoded by the genomic RNA where as the two involved in virus packaging and movement are translated by sub-genomic RNAs. The virus particles are very stable and remain infectious for many years after extraction.

Table 1. Different proteins encoded by tomato mosaic virus

ORF Function
180kDa /RNA dependent RNA polymerase Replication
130kDa/ Methyltransferase/Helicase Replication
30kDa/ Movement protein Cell to cell and long distance movement of virus particles
18kDa/Coat protein Packaging of viral RNA
Symptoms of Tomato Mosaic Virus

Tomato mosaic virus symptoms can be found at any stage of growth and all parts of the plant may be infected. ToMV causes yellow mosaic symptoms on the leaves and tomato fruits. Tomato mosaic virus symptoms are seen as a general mottling or mosaic appearance on foliage. Light and darker green mosaic leaf mottle, sometimes with distortion of younger leaves; this is the most common reaction in summer in glasshouses. In winter, with low light intensity, short days and temperatures not above 20°C, plants are often severely stunted and leaves distorted to ‘fern-leaf’ or tendril shape, but mottling may be slight. Plants are less vigorous, and fruit yield is reduced by 3 to 23%. Tomato mosaic virus strains occur in Chenopodium murale in the USA, causing severe stunting, distortion and necrosis , and in pear associated with a diffuse chlorotic leaf spotting.
Detection of Tomato Mosaic Virus

Treating mosaic virus is difficult and there are no chemicl controls like there are for fungal diseases. Tomato mosaic virus has been found to survive for up to 50 years in desiccated plant detritus! So tomato mosaic virus control then leans less on eliminating the disease and more on reducing and eliminating the virus sources and insect infestations. Control is mainly based on the use of virus-free seeds.

For detection of the pathogen, different methods may be used, including molecular or biological, and the use of indicator plants. However, these methods require appropriate facilities and are time consuming. Furthermore, the existence of strains of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tobamovirus, may cause symptoms similar to those caused by ToMV, making the biological test more complex. When it comes to establishing the health of a seed lot, the use of indicator plants may be replaced by the monoclonal-ELISA test. The DAS-ELISA (double antibody sandwich Elisa) is a relatively sensitive technique and is widely used for preliminary identification and quantification of viruses in plants. The DAS-ELISA test on tomato seeds (ToMV Elisa Kit) was an efficient method for detection. Thermotherapy for 24 h was shown to be effective in eradicating the virus, and caused less damage to the seed physiological quality.

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ELISA Kits for Kanamycin Detection from Creative Diagnostics
Creative Diagnostics offers the Kanamycin ELISA Kits for quantitative and qualitative analysis of kanamycin residue in animal tissues (muscle and liver, etc.) and milk etc. Each of our kits goes through fit-for-purpose validation and stability testing to ensure high accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

Kanamycin ELISA Kits:

Kanamycin ELISA Kit (DEIA048)
Kanamycin ELISA Kit (DEIAH-004H)

Kanamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic and is widely used in treating animal diseases. It harms the 8th cranial nerves, causing damages to the vestibular and cochlear. The main manifestations of renal toxicity are the damages of the proximal convoluted tubule, causing protein urine, hematuresis, renal hypofunction, etc. The residues of Kanamycin in animal derived food affect human health, in China and Occident, Kanamycin has been limited to use for its neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Kanamycin residue in the production of biological products may lead to abnormal reactions of human beings, thus strict MRLs have been established. This kit is a rapid test product for the determination of tetracycline residues which is sensitive, accurate and time-saving. It can considerably reduce the operation errors in the assay.

The Kanamycin ELISA Kit is designed to detect Kanamycin based on the principle of "indirect-competitive" enzyme immunoassay. The microtiter wells are coated with capture BSA-linked antigen. Kanamycin in the sample competes with antigen coated on the microtitre plate for the antibody. After the addition of enzyme conjugate, chromogenic substrate is used and the signal is measured by spectrophotometer. The absorption is inversely proportional to the Kanamycin concentration in the sample. This assay employs the competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay technique. The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with Kanamycin antigen. Standards or samples are added to the appropriate microtiter plate wells with Kanamycin specific antibody and Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) conjugated anti-antibody. The competitive inhibition reaction is launched between pre-coated Kanamycin and Kanamycin in standards or samples with the Kanamycin special antibody. A substrate solution is added to the wells and the color develops in opposite to the amount of Kanamycin in the standards or samples. The color development is stopped and the intensity of the color is measured.

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Hybrid zoo: Introducing pig–human embryos and a rat–mouse
Scientists have published the first peer-reviewed account of creating pig–human hybrid fetuses, a step toward growing animals with organs that are suitable for transplantation into humans.

The team that made these chimaeras also reports the creation of mouse–rat and human–cow hybrids on 26 January in Cell1. Such modified animals could provide researchers with new models for testing drugs and understanding early human development.

To create chimaeras, scientists generally inject pluripotent stem cells — which can become any type of organ — from one species into the early embryo of a second species. In theory, the foreign cells should differentiate and spread throughout the body, but in practice, producing viable hybrid embryos has proven difficult.
Transplant hopes
Nakauchi’s group is using similar methods to create human–sheep chimaeras, in part because he suspects that sheep embryos may be better able to take up human cells than pig embryos can. But Wu, says that pigs will probably be the best organ donors, because their large litter sizes would allow quicker production of organs. Pig organs are also close to the same size as human ones.

Researchers are pursuing a number of strategies to make pigs into human-organ donors, such as using CRISPR to disable pig proteins that could cause an immune response in primates. The advantage of chimaeras, Izpisua Belmonte says, is that researchers could one day use a patient’s own cells to create a pig chimaera with a human organ that has been grown for that individual.


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Tomato Mosaic Virus ELISA Kit
oMV is found worldwide and economically damaging in glasshouse and outdoor tomatoes and many other plants. ToMV can cause yellowing and stunting of tomato plants, resulting in loss of stand and reduced yield. In addition, the virus may cause uneven ripening of fruit, further reducing yield. The virus is readily spread by handling and cultural operations. It also contaminates seeds and soil, but no natural vector is known. The best measure to control and reduce infection is to use certified disease-free seed and remove any infected plants, including the roots. Remove Also, discard any plants near those affected.
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Wonderful! Chewing food can enhance oral immunity Immuno-surveillance networks operating at barrier sites are tuned by local tissue cues to ensure effective immunity. Site-specific commensal bacteria provide key signals ensuring host defense in the skin and gut. However, how the oral microbiome and tissue-specific signals balance immunity and regulation at the gingiva, a key oral barrier, remains minimally explored. In contrast to the skin and gut, we demonstrate that gingiva-resident T helper 17 (Th17) cells developed via a commensal colonization-independent mechanism. Accumulation of Th17 cells at the gingiva was driven in response to the physiological barrier damage that occurs during mastication. Physiological mechanical damage, via induction of interleukin 6 (IL-6) from epithelial cells, tailored effector T cell function, promoting increases in gingival Th17 cell numbers. These data highlight that diverse tissue-specific mechanisms govern education of Th17 cell responses and demonstrate that mechanical damage helps define the immune tone of this important oral barrier.

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Active Magnetic Particles from Creative Diagnostics
Creative Diagnostics provides magnetic particles functionalized with various terminal active groups for further conjugation of affinity ligands. The conjugation between particles and ligands can be established by direct conjugation, click chemistry, and linker chemistry. In direct conjugation stratagem, magnetic beads surface can be functionalized with amine, carboxyl, sulfhydryl, aldehyde, and active hydrogen functionalgroups. In “click” chemistry, magnetic beads are functionalized with alkyne to react with azide functionalized ligands under Cu catalyst. Conjugation by linker chemistry offer control over themolecular orientation of bound ligands, which is critical for protecting ligands functionality. Magnetic beads surfaces functionalized with amine or carboxyl groups can be modified with heterobifunctional linker molecules and further reacted with ligands.

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Creative Diagnostics Fall 2017 Scholarship Program
As a leading manufacturer and supplier of innovative immunological reagents and solutions, Creative Diagnostics is always dedicated to providing assistance to biotech, biopharmaceutical and life science communities across the world. Without the constant trust from our clients, Creative Diagnostics would not be able to stand out and work with them continually, which is why we are providing the Fall 2017 Scholarship Program for all students in the science field, expecting them to get more scientific achievements.

We’re excited to provide financial support to help science students achieve their goals in a college education. For the Fall 2017 Scholarship Program, we will be awarding a $1,000 scholarship to a young ambitious student who need the extra money most.
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