He suggests if the G20 were held again in Toronto next year, police would very likely use drones to monitor protesters. He questions whether the rules would preclude the use of weaponized UAVs, asking: “We wouldn’t allow a police helicopter in Canada to have missiles but would we allow a drone to have that sort of thing? I would say no, but has that line been drawn?”
A November 2013 report, “Watching Below: Dimensions of Surveillance-by-UAVs in Canada,” drew a similar conclusion regarding the use of police drones. The report, by Block G Privacy and Security Consulting, said: “Until national policies are established or court challenges arise . . . the use of UAVs by Canadian policing bodies will likely continue to be somewhat ad hoc and primarily constrained by the SFOC process and [law enforcement agencies’] interests in avoiding public pushback of UAV-based practices.”
- University of TorontoProject Director -- Telecom Transparency Project, 2014 - presentEngages in multi-disciplinary, cross-institutional research that investigates the rationales, processes, practices, and politics of third-party access to telecommunications data. Develops project methods and research goals for project, as well as establishing key deliverables. Responsible for managing project budget, evaluating high-priority issues of analysis, identifying key stakeholders invested in issue, co-ordinating with national and international partners, and understanding domestic and international telecommunications surveillance and privacy issues. Prepares, files, and analyzes access to information and privacy requests, conducts elite-level interviews, evaluates and critiques published and confidential government and corporate documents pertaining to telecommunications data disclosures and surveillance, and provides expert-level assistance on telecom transparency practices to national and international collaborators. Writes results for public, media, scholarly, policy, and governmental audiences. Presents findings to media, public, business, governmental, and academic audiences and stakeholders. Speaks about, and discusses, findings and research to variously sized audiences (3 people to international audiences). Regularly speaks on background and quotation to local, national, and international media audiences (print, radio, online, television). Prepares and submits grants to support to Telecom Transparency Project. Reports to the Director of the Citizen Lab.
- University of TorontoPostdoctoral Fellow, 2013 - presentEngaged in multi-disciplinary, multi-stakeholder research that investigates state agencies' access to telecommunications data. Analyze thousands of pages of documents to understand dimensions of access to telecommunications data for national security, signals intelligence, and domestic policing purposes. Write results for public, media, academic, government, and policy audiences, in the form of blog posts, academic articles, policy advice documents, and professional reports. Present findings to media, public, business and academic stakeholders, and members of government. Routinely speak about, and discuss, findings before audiences of various size (10 people to national media audiences). Regularly speak on background and for quotation to local, provincial, national, and international media (print, radio, online, television). Liaise with civil liberties groups, academics, corporate executives, government bureaucratic staff, parliamentarians and associated staff, and members of the media.
- Researcher, 2011 - presentConduct research, analysis, and policy recommendations concerning law enforcement authorities' use of automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) systems. Collaborate with a tight-knit research teach to produce high quality, empirically-grounded, analyses of the systems' conflict with Canadian privacy law while providing suggestions for how ALPR can be deployed in a privacy-protective way. Deliverables to date include a publicly accessible academic paper, national presentations, media articles, presentations to regulators, and ruling from the Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner of British Columbia concerning how the technology can, and cannot, be used in British Columbia.
- Block G Privacy and Security ConsultingPrincipal, 2013 - presentResponsible for conducting research on clients' privacy- and security-related challenges, analyzing strategies for overcoming such challenges, and proposing paths to address or get in front of potential business inhibitors. Situate clients' practices within the context of global and domestic security threats and explain privacy-related issues from ethical and policy positions. Provide evidence-based rationales for why problems may or may not exist and means to benchmark whether they have been overcome or avoided.
- University of VictoriaPhD Candidate, 2008 - 2013Involved in intensive and collaborative research with international research teams. Regularly required to meet tight deadlines to certify accurate content and effective communication of ideas. Lead researcher for Deep Packet Inspection Canada. Experienced in giving and conducting interviews with media and policy experts. Regularly assist third parties understand Canadian telecommunication, privacy, and copyright policies and positions. Collaborate with civil advocates and policy makers internationally on the topics of copyright, deep packet inspection, lawful access, data retention, and private and governmental network surveillance capacities.
- University of VictoriaSessional Instructor, 2012 - 2012Taught 20 upper-year undergraduate students about key issues and concepts shaping Internet politics today; topics focused on: network neutrality, critical infrastructure, copyright and freedom of expression, privacy and security, economics, surveillance and censorship, and governance and values; graded presentations and short- and long-form papers; responsible for 6 hours of instructional time/week
- British Columbia Civil Liberties AssociationCo-Researcher, 2012 - 2013Researched the BC Services Card and produced a public policy report that examined the history of identity management politics in Canada and British Columbia, identified normative, technical, and policy deficits with the existing deployment approach, and provided recommendations about how to address and overcome existing challenges facing the government initiative. The final report that was produced, and accompanying research, was funded by the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada's contributions program.
- University of VictoriaCo-Investigator, 2012 - 2013Was the co-investigator of the Canadians Access to Social Media Information (CATSMI) Project. The CATSMI explored how social networking companies collect Canadians personal information and their policies for disclosing it to Canadian citizens as well as to Canadian law enforcement authorities. The Project was funded through the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada's contributions program. As the co-investigator I was responsible for crafting the research methodology, liaising with design and web developers, document writing and document design, arranging content in a Drupal CMS, and working with and guiding graduate student research assistants. Deliverables included presentations given around the globe, a series of academic papers, media interviews, a publicly accessible website, and a host of 'raw data' reports that analyzed companies privacy policies, summarized interviews with police officers dealing with social media issues in Canada, and analyses of how Canadian 'lawful access' laws could affect how authorities could access Canadians personal information on social networking sites.
- University of VictoriaResearch Assistant, 2009 - 2010I was the lead researcher for the Deep-Packet Inspection: Resources for the Analysis of Privacy Implications in Canada. As researcher I was responsible for analyzing several years worth of policy documents concerning how the technology had been deployed in Canada, conducting interviews with Canadian policy elites concerning the technology, and synthesizing research to produce a website outlining to Canadians how Canadian ISPs were mediating data traffic using the technology. Funding for this project came from the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada's contributions program. Deliverables included a public website, a series of talks given around the country, and research from the project informed subsequent dissertation methodologies and research strategies.
- British Columbia Civil Liberties AssociationPrincipal Researcher and Author, 2011 - 2012Conducted comparative research that analyzed lawful access powers in the UK and United States, as well as in other nations around the world. Aim was to understand how lawful access powers were arranged in comparable Western democracies and what issues arose with those powers. Deliverables included a comparative report of lawful access powers that included a series of policy recommendations for how Canadian legislation might be crafted to avoid the pitfalls of the United Kingdom and United States.
- University of VictoriaPhD-Political Science, 2008 - 2013
- University of GuelphMA-Philosophy, 2006 - 2007
- University of GuelphMA-Philosophy, 2001 - 2006
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