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Christoph Rupprecht
Works at Research Institute for Humanity and Nature
Attended Griffith University
Lives in Kyoto
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Christoph Rupprecht
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Science & Humanities  - 
 
And another one! Biocultural Diversity of Urban Green Space in European Cities

The study contains a literature review, spatial analysis and fieldwork.

The literature review concludes "Especially at the species level, outcomes of
perception and valuation studies vary widely, and the gene level is not studied at all. Also, a range of important socio-demographic and cultural characteristics of the population sample are not systematically included in most studies."

The spatial analysis found: "Whereas some European urban regions have
rather few green spaces in the inner parts of their cities, other urban areas show a greater or more even distribution of the green spaces over the whole city area. The analyses also demonstrate that data on such a broad spatial scale are vastly inconsistent, making overarching spatial analyses still difficult. Demographic and socio-demographic data are comparatively up-to date, while land cover data stem from 2006."

Fieldwork is still underway and results are expected in a forthcoming second report. 
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Christoph Rupprecht
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A report from the EU Green Surge project that provides a "conceptual framework of [Biocultural Diversity] for urban context and analyses of BCD interpretations, manifestations and practices in governance and planning policy of green areas in 20 European cities."

Green Surge as a project works on linking green infrastructure, biodiversity, green economy and sustainable development.
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+Green Surge hope to interact with you in our community on the topic (https://plus.google.com/u/0/communities/110834970079444098643)
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Science & Humanities  - 
 
Here is a new form of biocultural diversity which we haven't had before, I think! And I'm fairly certain there are huge difference in home-internal ecosystems around the world. (via the Ecology community)
Our homes are complex ecosystems, supporting on average 100 different kinds of creepy-crawly, finds the first census of arthropods in houses
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+Christoph Rupprecht yep my bad, that's what I meant in fact. Here the hypothesis: 

Increase the diversity of certain traits in home artefacts -> increase in home biodiversity -> increase in home services (e.g., health, cleaning, ...)

Also good point for the body biome, potentially act as an intermediate agent. 
Maybe I should stop tacking showers, haha!
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Christoph Rupprecht
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Science & Humanities  - 
 
Here's a CFP for the 2016 AAG:

Association of American Geographers 2016 (March 29 - April 2) Call for papers. Paper Session: Biodiversity conservation, culture and context - new insights from political ecology

Session organisers: Ivan Scales, University of Cambridge and Riamsara Kuyakanon Knapp, University of Cambridge

Global conservation policy and practice have undergone significant change over the last decade. A greater focus on market-based mechanisms, poverty alleviation, economic development, humanitarianism and corporate partnerships has led some to announce the arrival of a ‘New Conservation’ (Soulé 2013), provoking renewed debate on conservation’s core values, as well as a call for the recognition of conservation’s diversity of aims and approaches (Tallis & Lubchenko 2014). 

While the global expansion of protected areas as a fundamental strategy of conventional conservation has continued, there is increasing recognition of the heterogeneity of conservation policy and practice (Dudley et al. 2014, Verschuuren et al. 2010, Sandbrook et al. 2011) and of the importance of culture to conservation outcomes (Waylen et al. 2010, Scales 2012). There have also been renewed attempts to build on local institutions and to engage with indigenous knowledge and beliefs, informed by a more critical appreciation of local complexities (Coombes et al. 2012, Dressler et al. 2010). However, important questions remain about how global biodiversity conservation ‘touches down’ in different contexts, as well as how identity, knowledge and contrasting values play into contestations over natural resources. 

Political ecology has an established history of studying biodiversity conservation, revealing its values and power struggles. While political ecologists have become increasingly eclectic in the theories and tools that they draw on, there have been calls for more sophisticated analyses of power that focus on the roles of gender, ethnicity, knowledge and identity in claims over natural resources (Goldman 2011, Rocheleau 2008). For example, there has been a growing focus on intersectionality, i.e. the way ethnicity, gender, class and other forms of social difference interact simultaneously to shape and constrain identity and social roles. There has also been a greater focus on multiple and situated knowledges and the interactions between them (Goldman et al. 2011).

How are these more pluralistic political ecologies contributing to analyses of diverse conservation practices in diverse contexts? 

In this session we will explore recent trends in global biodiversity conservation through more pluralistic political ecologies. We are particularly interested in conservation policies and practices that focus on working with / through ‘local’ beliefs, values and institutions. We are also interested in novel political ecology approaches that seek to move beyond more traditional analyses of power. 

*Possible topics / themes could include (but are not limited to): *

• Identity. What factors shape the identities of resource users; how do identities shape resource use; and how do conservation policies and practices shape identities (and vice versa). 

• Intersectionality. How does a focus on the intersection between class, gender and / or ethnicity contribute to understandings of biodiversity conservation policy and practice? 

• Multiple / situated knowledges, practices and values. How is conservation policy interacting with local knowledges, practices and institutions? Where is the researcher positioned and how does s/he navigate within and across multiple framings?

• Hybridity. How are different knowledges, values and beliefs hybridising through conservation policy and practice?

• Power. How do identity, intersectionality, situated knowledges / values, and hybridity play into contests over resource use? How is power exercised in conservation policies and practices that focus on culture? 


*Abstracts (250 words maximum) should be sent to both Riamsara Knapp (rk391@cam.ac.uk) and Ivan Scales (irs28@cam.ac.uk) by 5pm GMT on Friday 16th October 2015. *

Decisions will be made and communicated by 5pm GMT on Friday 23rd October 2015. 

The deadline for submitting abstracts to the AAG is currently 28th October 2015.  


References

Coombes, B., Johnson, J. T., Howitt, R. (2012) Indigenous geographies I: Mere resource conflicts? The complexities in indigenous land and environmental claims. Progress in Human Geography 36, 810-821. 

Dressler, W., Buscher, B., Schoon, M., Brockington, D., Hayes, T., Kull, C. A., McCarthy, J. and Shrestha, K. (2010) From hope to crisis and back again? A critical history of the global CBNRM narrative. Environmental Conservation 37, 5-15. 

Dudley, Nigel, Craig Groves, Kent H. Redford, and Sue Stolton (2014) Where Now for Protected Areas? Setting the Stage for the 2014 World Parks Congress. Oryx FirstView: 1–8. 

Goldman, M. J. and Turner, M. D. (2011) Introduction. In: Goldman, M. J., Nadasdy, P. and Turner, M. D. (eds) Knowing nature: conversations at the intersection of political ecology and science studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1–23

Rocheleau, D. (2008) Political ecology in the key of policy: from chains of explanation to webs of relation. Geoforum 39, 716–727

Sandbrook, C., Scales, I.R., Vira, B. and Adams, W.M. (2011) ‘Value Plurality among Conservation Professionals’. Conservation Biology, 25, 285-294

Scales, I.R. (2012) ‘Lost in translation: Conflicting views of deforestation, land use and identity in western Madagascar’ The Geographical Journal, 178, 67-79

Soule, M. (2013) The ‘New Conservation’. Conservation Biology, 27, 895-897

Tallis, H., and Lubchenco., J. (2014) “Working Together: A Call for Inclusive Conservation.” Nature, 515 (7525), 27–28

Verschuuren, Bas, Robert Wild, Jeffrey A. McNeeley, and Gonzalo Oviedo, eds. (2010) Sacred Natural Sites: Conserving Nature and Culture. 1st ed. London: Earthscan.

Waylen, Kerry A., Anke Fischer, Philip J. K. Mcgowan, Simon J. Thirgood, and E. J. Milner-Gulland (2010) Effect of Local Cultural Context on the Success of Community-Based Conservation Interventions. Conservation Biology, 24, 1119–29
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Vacant lots, street and railway verges, brownfields... could such #informalgreenspace  play a role in urban residents' recreation?

It turns out it does - in a recent study in #Brisbane  and #Sapporo  I surveyed residents and found over 80% know about these spaces, and 30-50% area already using them. 

The study is currently freely accessible, and here's some background if you are interested: https://plus.google.com/+ChristophRupprecht/posts/ZSM9i3Gf8Q6
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The second trilingual systematic literature review: what role does #informalgreenspace  play for urban #biodiversity ? I looked at 174 papers and found that IGS is indeed important, with papers talking about conservation value, factors influencing diversity, and non-indigenous species. Management practices were the most common and negative impact on IGS biodiversity, so we should think about how we could reduce and optimize necessary maintenance to limit its impact. Positive factors included vegetation, site age, city center distance, and habitat diversity.

Tags: #urbanecology   #novelecosystems   #wasteland  

If you don't have access to the journal, please grab a copy of the paper here: http://www.focx.de/publications/Rupprecht%20Byrne%20Garden%20Hero%202015%20-%20Informal%20urban%20green%20space%20-%20A%20trilingual%20systematic%20review%20of%20its%20role%20for%20biodiversity%20and%20trends%20in%20the%20literature.pdf

Abstract: Urban greenspaces harbor considerable biodiversity. Such areas include spontaneously vegetated spaces such as such as brownfields, street or railway verges and vacant lots. While these spaces may contribute to urban conservation, their informal and liminal nature poses a challenge for reviewing what we know about their value for biodiversity. The relevant literature lacks a common terminology. This paper applied a formal definition and typology of informal urban greenspace (IGS) to identify and systematically review a total of 174 peer-reviewed papers in English (152), German (14) and Japanese (8). We identified three main topics: value for conservation (94 papers), factors influencing diversity (80), and non-indigenous species (37). Additionally, we analyzed this literature for temporal trends, spatial patterns, studied IGS types, taxa, climate zones, human impact types, and key authors. Results show IGS plays an important role for biodiversity. Management practices were identified as the most common and negative impact on diversity, while vegetation, site age, distance to city center, and habitat diversity were positive-influence factors. The number and impact of non-indigenous species varied widely. The analysis of literature patterns reveals: an increase in publications over the last 15 years and a strong geographic bias in publications, as well as towards temperate and humid climate zones. Studies of gap, powerline and microsite IGS were scarce, as were studies of mammals and reptiles. Results suggest different maintenance regimes for IGS may improve its contribution to urban conservation. We therefore propose adapting management to the local context.
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One of my main PhD papers, co-authored with Jason Byrne, Alex Lo and Hirofumi Ueda: How do urban residents perceive and use #informalgreenspace
The results are pretty stunning: 
- Over 80% of respondents knew of informal greenspace in their neighborhood.
- 52% of respondents in Brisbane and 31% Sapporo used IGS for recreation.
- Reasons for use included proximity, diverse flora/fauna, no use restrictions or crowding.
- Influence of demographic factors on IGS use and evaluation was limited.
- Cultural and geographic context may explain different IGS evaluation and use.

The paper is currently freely accessible, but at the bottom is a PDF link for later.

Abstract: Urban parks and gardens may be failing to meet the diverse “nature needs” of a growing global urban population. Informal urban greenspace (IGS) such as vacant lots, street or railway verges and riverbanks may provide space for unstructured recreation and nature contact. Yet we know little about residents' relationship with IGS outside of Europe and North America, what factors influence IGS use and evaluation, or what role geographic and cultural context play.

Our paper combines qualitative and quantitative methods to examine how residents in Brisbane, Australia (n = 123) and Sapporo, Japan (n = 163) perceive, evaluate and use IGS. Using statistical methods (e.g. correlation analysis) we analyzed what factors influence how respondents interact with IGS, including the amount of formal greenspace within 500m of survey locations using a GIS buffer analysis. Results were tested for differences and similarities between the cities.

We found that respondents knew of IGS in their neighborhood (>80%), appreciated and used it (>30%), but more respondents in Brisbane used and appreciated IGS. The influence of demographic factors and local formal greenspace area was limited, but respondents' attitude towards urban nature was correlated with IGS evaluation. Littering was perceived as IGS' most common problem (90% of respondents), but was reported by <20% of IGS users. Geographic (e.g., IGS type prevalence) and cultural (e.g., human-nature relationship) contexts represented potential influence factors. We argue that the liminal nature of IGS (e.g., liability) management poses a challenge traditional greenspace planning. To address this problem, further research should explore participatory management approaches.

Link: http://www.focx.de/publications/Rupprecht%20Byrne%20Ueda%20Lo%202015%20-%20It's%20real%20not%20fake%20like%20a%20park%20-%20Residents%20perception%20of%20informal%20urban%20green-space.pdf
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Christoph Rupprecht
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Dennis and James (2016) suggest that community participation in #urban green commons positively impacts #biodiversity in a study based in Manchester, UK. They argue that positive socio-ecological feedbacks may thus be possible, and that the study provides "support for the promotion of a highly decentralised, stakeholder-led stewardship of green space as a valid consideration in the management of urban ecosystem services."


Abstract:
"Polycentric governance and stakeholder participation in natural resource management have potential benefits for both human and environmental well-being. Researchers and decision-makers have attempted to conceptualise the ecological, social and political potential of such semi-formal approaches to urban green space management. However, few studies have quantified the actual benefits in terms of biodiversity and associated ecosystem service provision, or the factors that mediate levels of participation.

The links between biodiversity potential, site access and user participation were explored in a case study comprising ten established examples of organised social–ecological initiatives in the inner-city area of Greater Manchester. At the micro-scale, the case study quantified the levels of community involvement (measured in volunteer hours month−1) in local green commons and the biodiversity potential (assessed using floristic and structural diversity as a surrogate) of the ten sites. Descriptive analysis identified that site spatial and design characteristics affected all three measures and subsequent correlational analyses revealed a high degree of synergy between site use and biodiversity.

The study thereby provides quantitative evidence of the synergistic relationship between green space use and urban biodiversity and, importantly, the positive feedbacks which should result between volunteer input and the local generation of ecosystem services. The study provides support for the promotion of a highly decentralised, stakeholder-led stewardship of green space as a valid consideration in the management of urban ecosystem services."
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Christoph Rupprecht
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Jobs Central & Fundraising  - 
 
Four job opportunities at the level of postdoc/project researcher and senior project researcher! Detailed requirements vary, check the descriptions.

Deadline: January 15, 2016

Contract period: 1 year, renewable up to 5 years

Project: "Lifeworlds of Sustainable Food Consumption and Production: Agrifood Systems in Transition" (PI Prof. Steven McGreevy) (Info: http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/rihn_e/project/PR-2015.html)

Location: Kyoto, Japan (need rights to work in Japan to apply)

▼Current Recruitment. 「Human-Environmental Security in the Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire:Water-Energy-Food Nexus」. Project Research Deadline for Application: 17:00 Japanese Standard Time, January 18 (Monday), 2016 (Click here for the details) ...
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Christoph Rupprecht
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Science & Humanities  - 
 
New paper on the "Montérégie Connection (MC) project [which] has used the rapidly suburbanizing agricultural Montérégien landscape just east of Montreal, Québec, Canada, to investigate how current and historic landscape structure influences ES provision". 

I haven't read it in detail, but they write "Our results highlight the importance of forest connectivity and functional diversity on ES provision, and show that ES provision can vary significantly even within single land-use types in response to changes in landscape structure. Our historical analysis reveals that levels of ES provision, as well as relationships among individual ES, can change dramatically through time. We are using these results to build quantitative ES-landscape structure models to assess four future landscape scenarios for the region: Periurban Development, Demand for Energy, Whole-System Crisis, and Green Development. These scenarios integrate empirical and historical data on ES provision with local stakeholder input about global and local social and ecological drivers to explore how land-use decisions could affect ES provision and human well-being across the region to the year 2045."
Mitchell, M. G. E., E. M. Bennett, A. Gonzalez, M. J. Lechowicz, J. M. Rhemtulla, J. A. Cardille, K. Vanderheyden, G. Poirier-Ghys, D. Renard, S. Delmotte, C. H. Albert, B. Rayfield, M. Dumitru, H.-H. Huang, M. Larouche, K. N. Liss, D. Y. Maguire, K. T. Martins, M. Terrado, C. Ziter, L. Taliana, and K. Dancose. 2015. The Mont&eacute;r&eacute;gie Connection: linking landscapes, biodiversity, and ecosystem services to improve decision making. Ecolo...
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This the first of two trilingual (English, German, Japanese) systematic literature reviews on #informalgreenspace  (still from 2014). Here, I look at its role for urban residents. The 65 articles I reviewed were quite clear: IGS is important for urban residents' recreation, but there are problems around its perception - for residents to like IGS, it should neither be too managed and designed (like a park), nor too wild! 

Tags: #recreation   #planning   #parks  

The paper is published #openaccess , so go ahead and enjoy :D 

Abstract: Urban greenspace is vital in fulfilling people's nature needs. Informal urban greenspace (IGS) such as vacant lots, street or railway verges and riverbanks is an often-overlooked part of the natural urban landscape. We lack a formal definition of IGS and a comprehensive review of knowledge about IGS and its role for urban residents. This paper advances a formal definition and typology of IGS that can be applied globally. Based on this definition, a total of 65 peer-reviewed papers in English (57), Japanese (7) and German (1) were reviewed. We analyzed this literature for its temporal trends, spatial patterns, studied IGS types, methods used and key authors, and summarized the individual research papers’ findings concerning IGS. Results show IGS plays an important role for urban residents, but also highlight limitations and problems in realizing IGS’ full potential. Research papers focused on perception, preferences, value and uses of IGS. Residents could distinguish between formal and informal greenspace. They preferred a medium level of human influence in IGS. The analysis of patterns in the literature reveals: a marked increase in publications in the last 20 years; a strong geographical bias towards the USA; and a lack of multi-type IGS studies including all IGS types. Publications outside of scholarly research papers also make valuable contributions to our understanding of IGS. Our results suggest IGS is emerging as an important sub-discipline of urban greening research. 
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In this paper published in Children's Geographies, my co-authors Jason Byrne, Alex Lo and I take a look at the role #informalgreenspace  has played in the past. We asked respondents in #Brisbane  and #Sapporo  about their #memories  of IGS use as children and teenagers. We found that IGS was quite important for them, and contrary to a lot of the concern about children's safety, respondents didn't recall running into much trouble! 

The paper is currently freely available at the journal, but below is a link to the PDF once the free access period is over.

Abstract:
Contact with nature is vital for the development of children and teenagers. In the past, informal urban green spaces (IGS) such as vacant lots appear to have been used for such purposes. We need to better understand how previous generations used IGS to make sure young people today can also enjoy its social, mental, emotional and physical health benefits. This study quantitatively compared adult residents' memories of IGS use in their childhood and teenage years in two geographically and culturally distinct cities: Brisbane, Australia, and Sapporo, Japan. The results showed most respondents (>70%) remembered using IGS in the past, and preferred it over other green space because it was easily accessible. Most (>70%) recalled experiencing no problems (e.g. danger of injury) when using IGS, a contrast to recently increasing parental concern for children's safety. Such factors may limit present IGS use and prevent it from fulfilling the important role it played for previous generations' recreation.

Link to the PDF once the paper is down: http://www.focx.de/publications/Rupprecht%20Christoph%20-%20Memories%20of%20vacant%20lots%20-%20Children's%20Geographies%20-%20Authors%20accepted%20manuscript.pdf
Memories of vacant lots: how and why residents used informal urban green space as children and teenagers in Brisbane, Australia, and Sapporo, Japan. . ???aop.label???. doi: 10.1080/14733285.2015.1048427
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Education
  • Griffith University
    PhD Urban geography, planning and ecology, 2011 - 2015
  • Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
    MA Japanese studies, philosophy, biology, 2003 - 2009
  • Hokkaido University
    HUSTEP exchange student, 2005 - 2006
Basic Information
Gender
Male
Story
Tagline
Geographer (PhD), translator, photographer. Interests: informal urban greenspace (非公式緑地), cities, nature, culture and travel!
Introduction
Geographer and urban planner (PhD) working on informal urban greenspace. Photography is my tool to share the joy of living. I also do professional academic translations in Japanese, English and German :)

Interests: informal urban greenspace (非公式緑地), urban geography, urban ecology, environmental geography, cultural perception of urban nature, Japanese cities, nature and culture photography, renaissance philosophy of nature and magic, constitutions, depiction of nature in films, science fiction and fantasy literature, electronic games and the observation of various interesting and curious phenomena of the known world.
Work
Occupation
Urban geography, planning & ecology (PhD), JP-EN-DE translation
Skills
Quantitative and qualitative research methods, research design, project management, JP-EN-DE language/translation, photography, IT (Linux, OSX, Win, Web) admin
Employment
  • Research Institute for Humanity and Nature
    Project Researcher, 2016 - present
  • Griffith University
    Visiting Researcher, 2015 - 2016
  • Griffith University Science, Environment, Engineering and Technology Group
    Teaching Assistant, 2011 - 2013
Places
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Currently
Kyoto
Previously
Nagoya - Gold Coast - Abingdon - Munich - Sapporo - Landshut - Brisbane