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Charles Carrigan
Works at Olivet Nazarene University
Attended University of Michigan
14,499 followers|5,664,612 views


Charles Carrigan

Volcanology  - 
Show the +American Geophysical Union (AGU)​ some G+ love. They post frequently, but don't get much interaction.
Altered states (of lava domes)
(Magma Cum Laude at #AGUblogs)
Time for some shameless self-promotion – but also some research blogging. Last week I (finally) had a paper come out about my graduate modeling work on the hydrothermal systems and alteration…
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Charles Carrigan

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Here's another study about Presidential candidates and their views on climate science. It is similar to the one posted by +Noah Diffenbaugh​ yesterday that I shared to this collection. The results are similar, but there are a few candidates who scored differently. Many of the Republican candidates fail to accurately understand the science of climate change, even confusing fundamental terms like weather and climate. 
Climate change will be a hot topic during the 2016 presidential election campaign. The candidates have already started talking about climate science in debates, press conferences, and interviews. An overwhelming majority of Americans (87%) say it is important that candidates for President and Congress have a basic understanding of the science informing public policy issues. … Continued
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Charles Carrigan

Structure-Tectonics  - 
New post up at my new website about some folded high-grade gneisses at Powder River Pass in the Bighorns.  
While on a field trip back in 2012, we stopped to view the high-grade gneisses at Powder River Pass as we were traversing over the Bighorn Mountains. These gne...
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+Charles Carrigan Thanks Charles.  I would have been particularly interested in observing mineral deformation in these rocks.  Thanks for sharing these great photos.
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Charles Carrigan

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Geology Field Photo: Tilted Strata along the Front Range

I've posted previously about the Pennsylvanian Fountain Formation, but it's been a long time.  So here's another shot of these tilted red rocks from Roxborough State Park, CO.  The red sedimentary rocks here are tilted upward from the rise of the Rocky Mountains further west.  These are striking and beautiful rocks - the same formation that is found at Garden of the Gods (to the S near Colorado Springs) and at Red Rocks Park (to the N near Denver).  I recently gathered a few of these shots and posted them on the new website I've been developing, which can be found here:!Roxborough-Tilted-Strata-Geophotography-Field-Trip/cf15/5583b4b50cf23681a55fdb42

#Geophotography     #GSA2013     #FrontRange   #Roxborough   
Antônio de Pádua's profile photoJudy Tackett's profile photoFrancisca chagas Fran's profile photoimran ansari's profile photo
Very cool +marisa boraas​, can definitely see the influence of geology on her work. 
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Charles Carrigan

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New G+: meh...

Back to "classic".  Not really clear why that change is necessary or better.  

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I have to go to the new one, the nagging is driving me nuts.
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Charles Carrigan

Mineral Resources  - 
Huge breach of a dam holding back mine waste led to immense flooding downstream; 9 dead and many more missing. 
Brazilian villages and rivers are inundated with mud after mining dams burst.
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holy cow!  that is huge!
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CO2 about to pass 400 ppm for the last time?

This month, Nov. 2015, may be the last time the Earth's atmosphere sees a value less than 400 ppm CO2 - until humans start to do some drastic things about climate change.  

A number of months ago, CO2 in Earth's atmosphere passed the 400 ppm mark for the first time.  But as the seasons come & go, the value goes up and down.  It hits a low point in Sept every year, then begins to rise again until spring, when it begins to fall again.  But over the years, the range continues to climb.  The most recent measurement from the Mauna Loa observatory (Nov. 8, 2015) was 399.65.  Soon it will pass this number, but when the values start coming back down again next spring, they may not dip below 400.  

Leader of Keeling Curve measurement says temporary bump from El Niño could push atmospheric CO2 levels above symbolic threshold for good
Donny Eisenbach's profile photoCharles Carrigan's profile photoJim Donegan's profile photo
+Donny Eisenbach if we haven't already gotten there, we certainly will soon, and we'll surpass it quickly.  During the Medieval Warm Period, CO2 was substantially lower than it is today.  
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Climate Change and Bear Foods

Huckleberry cobbler, huckleberry ice cream, huckleberry we have your attention? 

No, we don't plan to start a food blog, but black and grizzly bears also saver the purple berries.

Meet Tabitha Graves, a USGS Research Ecologist working out of Glacier National Park in Montana. Tabitha's research is looking at potential effects of climate change on bear foods such as huckleberries.

Using remote cameras and field observations, Tabitha's team is examining the relationship between climate and the pattern of huckleberry growth, flowering, and number of berries in a given year. She is also exploring the relationships between pollinators and insect pests, and huckleberry development. Citizen science opportunities are also being developed to collect phenology (seasonal changes in plants) and productivity data on huckleberries, with the goal of developing predictive maps/forecasts of berry productivity.

For more information on climate change impacts on bear foods, please see:

#WomeninScience #GlacierNationalPark #huckleberries #pollinators #phenology 
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Typo: "saver" should be "savor." Or "savour" if you're in the UK. :)
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Charles Carrigan

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Blind Grading of US Presidential Candidates Statements About Climate Change

+Seth Borenstein of +Associated Press asked 8 scientists to grade the statements of US presidential candidates. The scientists were recommended by scientific societies (not by AP), and were not told which candidate had made which statements.

Here are the results:

The three democratic candidates scored the highest, with Hillary Clinton scoring the highest (94%). Ted Cruz scored the lowest (6%).

#climatechange #globalwarming #science #sciencecommunication

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Trump must be the GOP candidate - he'll make more people scoff and he'll lose so badly they'll compare him with Barry Goldwater.
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Nice win yesterday!  Seeing MSU beat up on the team from Ohio only made me more giddy for next week's rivalry game.  
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This article at the Washington Post basically says what we've expected for nearly the past year - that 2015 will crush the old record for hottest year ever recorded.  Which, if you recall, was set last year in 2014.  This is most likely largely due to the el nino effect, which serves to magnify the recent warming trend and produce anomalously warm years.  This year's el nino has been frequently compared to the events of 1997-1998, and 1998 was weirdly warm, so much so that it set the record of hottest year for quite some time.  In fact, 1998's hotness set the stage for climate change deniers to later claim that the "Earth hasn't warmed in the past decade" in the late 2000s-early 2010s.  But regardless of the regular ups & downs that Earth's annual average surface temperature goes through, the pattern of a steady increase in this value on average is very clear, and the past few years have shown that this trend has very much continued in recent times.  It will be interesting to watch what happens with the el nino phenomenon through the next few months and into early 2016.  If it settles back down to more normal conditions, we'll likely see 2016 as a cooler year than 2015.  2015 could hold the title of hottest year on record for quite some time if the el nino phenomenon rests for a few years.  Will be interesting to watch as data continues to accumulate in the coming years.  
Eight of 10 months this year have ranked as the warmest on record, including the last six.
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Charles Carrigan

Mineral Resources  - 
If accurate, this would have incredible far-reaching consequences for geopolitical issues.
Estimates of Undiscovered Copper in Middle East Ten Times Current World Production #minerals #usgs
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todd comer's profile photoAdnan Akdemir's profile photoGinette Morrison's profile photoMatthew Strain (Matt)'s profile photo
understood, but the usual fair is for developed countries to come in, exploit the resources, both human and mineral to the point of civil unrest.... it is has been the case over and over again in less developed countries...  I think this is great, if the western world stays out of the equation.
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Geoscience education & research
  • Olivet Nazarene University
    Prof. of Geoscience, 2004 - present
Basic Information
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Husband, Father, Geoscientist, Educator
I'm a Professor of Geoscience at Olivet Nazarene University.  I'm a big fan of hiking, camping, & other outdoor activities.  I'm also into photography, technology, culture, politics, psychology, sociology, education, the interaction of religious faith with the above, music, games with friends, cooking, yadayada.  

On Google+, I post geology field photographs I have taken about once a week and give a brief explanation of what you are seeing from the eyes of a geologist.  These are kept in my album "Geology Field Photos".  I am also the owner & a moderator for the Geoscience Community here on G+, and I hope other geoscientists will join the discussions there.  
I sometimes write a blog about mineral resources & the environment & anything else geological I feel like called Earth-like Planet.  Circle me here on Google+ if those things sound of interest to you.  
Professionally, I study the application of mineralogy, petrology, & geochemistry to the understanding of mountain belts and tectonic processes, specifically in the Southern Appalachians.  My students and I use the tools of geochronology and thermobarometry to establish P-T-t paths of metamorphic rocks, and thereby constrain the timing and rates of tectonic processes.  Our current, ongoing project focuses on information that can be obtained by emphasizing the study of rutile & other minerals in pelitic schists.  

I also study the best practices for improvements in education within the MPG (mineralogy, petrology, & geochemistry) disciplines, as well as geoscience for general education.  My work has focused on a complete redesigned the way I teach mineralogy with an emphasis on geologic context, as well as the way students relate upper level course work back to material and skills they learned in previous courses.  I'm also in the process of designing video tutorials for optical mineralogy, which I hope to begin publishing on the web in the next 6 months.  
Bragging rights
My rock garden has more garnet than yours. My dog's name is Xenolith. I married a girl who took Calculus for fun in college. I defended my dissertation on the Winter Solstice. I can solve a 3x3 rubics cube in about 2 minutes.
  • University of Michigan
    PhD, Geology, 2000 - 2005
  • Vanderbilt University
    MS, Geology, 1998 - 2000
  • Olivet Nazarene University
    BS, Geology, 1992 - 1996
Charles Carrigan's +1's are the things they like, agree with, or want to recommend.
Learning Geology: Can we predict Earthquakes?

Can seismologists predict earthquakes? The answer depends on the time frame of the prediction. With our present understanding of the distrib

New Madrid responds to little sister

A whole bunch of 3's have just popped at the top of the New Madrid thrust section. Somebody is jealous of Oklahoma getting all the attention

Pixlr – Free Photo Editor - Android Apps on Google Play

Unlock your creativity with Pixlr - the free photo editor! Capture any moment and make it beautiful with over 2 million combinations of free

Why did the Road Cross the San Andreas Fault? 13 Years of Geologic Chang...

2002 I've been leading geology field studies trips to lots of places in the American West for 27 years and started to take digital pictures

Toronto Star

Climate scientists say 2015 will be the hottest year on record.

USGS Release: Estimates of Undiscovered Copper in Middle East Ten Times ...

More than 180 million metric tons of undiscovered copper resources may be found in an area of the Middle East that covers Turkey, Georgia, A

An Elegy for Gender? The Encroachment of Androgyny

"REALLY? You think you received something different from your mother and father?" is a question my college student daughter was recently ask

6 Photographers Asked to Shoot Portraits of 1 Man... With a Twist

Canon recently conducted an interesting experiment on the power of perspective in portrait photography. They enlisted the help of 6 photogra

What does it mean to be a "Fellow" of a professional organization? - Geo...

When I told my undergraduate students that I was off to a conference and would recognized as a society fellow - I was met by blank stares. S

Looking For Detachment: A Hike Up Glass Mountain

It was Earth Science Week, and a relatively small group of Nevada geologists went on a two-day field trip to a couple places that included M

What's New in Topo Maps+ 3.0 - Glacier Peak Studios

New User Interface Topo Maps+ has an updated the user interface which makes features more accessible and downloading maps even easier. Use t

What's New in Topo Maps+ 3.4 - Glacier Peak Studios

Topo Maps+ version 3.4 added a new Outdoor Trails Map with world wide trails. You can access this map by tapping on the map icon in the uppe

Using Topo Maps+ Offline - Glacier Peak Studios

Topo Maps+ is designed for offline use while deep in the backcountry. Most of the features of Topo Maps+ work even when there is no internet

Appalachian Mountain Club's Equipped: Nearly Every USGS Topo Map Ever Ma...

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing detailed topographic maps for more than 125 years. Today they are nearly all digitized


Small business owners sometimes think the only thing they have to do to protect their business name is to register it with the state. While

Welcome IG friends

Welcome to my orphaned blog! I hope to resume weekly posts in the coming months. Since October of 2013 I have been posting about 5 IG posts

Uncle Ned's Nonessential Notions

McDonald's announced recently that, beginning October 6, 2015, they will begin serving breakfast all day. The announcement has met with wide

Beautiful hotel.
Public - a week ago
reviewed a week ago
The hotel is nice. Good room, good service. The location and surrounding area I was less than thrilled with.
Public - 3 weeks ago
reviewed 3 weeks ago
Lots of family fun at this indoor water park/hotel. We really enjoyed our time!
Public - 7 months ago
reviewed 7 months ago
There's lots to love about this park. The trees are wonderful in the fall. The stars are incredible at night! The camp sites are decent, with good fire pits and picnic tables. They could use some flatter tent pads in some areas. Some of them have really poorly designed drainage and one site we stayed at was very muddy. But as much as I love this place, I have to give it three stars for two reasons. First, the water quality issue. I've stayed at this campground many times over the past ~15 years, and the water always has a boil advisory. They really need to fix this and get clean, potable water that is safe to drink. I've never had a problem, but it is a risk that shouldn't be tolerated anymore at a Provincial Park. Secondly, the price of these sites is absurdly high. It costs ~$35+ per night just for tent sites. That's way too high for a spot to set up a tent esp. when the water can't be trusted.
• • •
Public - a year ago
reviewed a year ago
43 reviews
Been here twice, never experienced anything other than a great chipotle experience.
Public - 6 months ago
reviewed 6 months ago
Nice place, but really expensive. The price is way too high for tent sites.
Public - a year ago
reviewed a year ago
Mark is a great guy and gives a great tour of his land, showing the ecological connections and the stunning mineral specimens. It is like visiting a mineral museum, but in the great outdoors! He has a real heart for conservation too.
Public - a year ago
reviewed a year ago