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Charles Carrigan
Works at Olivet Nazarene University
Attended University of Michigan
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Charles Carrigan

Collections Help  - 
 
Anyone else noticed that when you share a collection as a post, the choice of the collection background color can make the link totally disappear?  When you mouse-over a post, the colors of links all turn from white to blue.  And if you've chosen blue as the background color for a collection....  
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First Collection : Geology Field Photos 

I have created a collection of my posts of photos of geology in the field.  I set this one to auto-follow: if you're following me, you're following this collection unless you decide to opt-out.  In the future, I will post all of these photos to this collection.  

#GeoPhotography    
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Just a note so people are aware - when you create a collection, you can customize the color of the banner, which in this case I've chosen green.  There are lots of colors to choose from.  However, one of them is a blue color that is the exact same color (as far as my eyes can tell) that links get when you mouse-over a post.  So if someone chooses that color blue for their collection and then shares it as a post, when people mouse over the post the link to the collection link text will be impossible to see.  You'll only know it is there when you either 1) remove the mouse from the post and the link text turns back to white, or 2) your mouse will change to a finger from an arrow when you're over the link.  This is on desktop/windows; no mouse-over color changes if you are on mobile obviously.  
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How I Plan to Use Collections

So if you haven't heard, the plus turned out a new feature yesterday called Collections.  I'm pretty excited about this; this is the feature I've wanted for years.  Quickly: collections allow you to organize your posts into topics; readers can follow or unfollow any and all of your collections that they have access to.  This is great, because most people are multi-faceted and have lots of different interests.  This helps G+ be more of the shared-interests network that it always has been.  

I plan on putting all of my posts into collections.  It will take some time to get organized, but this will allow people to connect with me on the topics they are interested in.  It also allows me to share more things publicly, without feeling like I'm spamming my followers with things they aren't interested in.  I'm thinking I may write a "summary of my collections" post and pin it to the top of my page.  

So what do other plusketeers think of this new feature?  How do you plan to use it?  
 
Introducing Google+ Collections, a new way to group your posts by topic

Our happiest Google+ users are those who connect with others around shared interests and passions. So we set out to give people a place to express the things they love. Today, we’re announcing Google+ Collections, a new way to group your posts by topic.

Every collection is a focused set of posts on a particular topic, providing an easy way for you to organize all the things you’re into. Each collection can be shared publicly, privately, or with a custom set of people. Once you create your first collection, your profile will display a new tab where other people can find and follow your collections.

Posts in collections you follow will appear in your Home stream, with a link to easily jump right into the collection so you can get to similar content from that author. Collections give you a great way to find more of the stuff you love from the people you follow.

Collections is available on Android and the web, and iOS is coming later. For Android users, make sure to update your Google+ app to get access to Collections.

For inspiration on interesting topics, check out our Featured Collections page here: g.co/collections

Create your collections today and share what you love.

Edit : Have questions about Collections?  Join this community for Help, Tips & Tricks : http://goo.gl/meRk8j
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Got it now.
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This map of Chicago is fascinating.
Yonatan Zunger originally shared:
 
This article is an excellent exploration of just what the terms "diverse" and "integrated" really mean when we're talking about cities. Basically, there are two different things we can measure: how diverse is the city as a whole, and does this diversity take the form of different people living next to each other, or of a bunch of highly segregated neighborhoods?

To study that, we measure two different numbers. The first is "citywide diversity:" for an average resident of the city, what percent of people belong to a different ethnic group? The second is "neighborhood diversity:" for an average resident of the city, what percent of people in their neighborhood belong to a different ethnic group?

Clearly, neighborhood diversity can't be greater than citywide diversity -- if there aren't people of other ethnic groups in the city at all, you can't have them in neighborhoods on the average, either. But it can be less. Basically:

* If a city is completely ethnically homogenous, then both citywide and neighborhood diversity have to be zero. (Examples: Laredo, TX and Lincoln, NE)

* If a city has high citywide and neighborhood diversity, then there are a lot of people of different ethnic groups, and they live mixed in with each other. (Example: Sacramento, CA)

* If a city has high citywide diversity but low neighborhood diversity, then its diversity takes the form of lots of ethnic enclaves and little mixing. (Example: Chicago, IL, whose ethnic distribution map you can see below)

The researchers found that as cities get more diverse, on the average their neighborhood diversity goes down a bit -- not surprising, since as cities get more diverse you get communities large enough to form enclaves in the first place. But beyond this average trend, there's considerable variation from city to city, and so they developed the "integration-segregation index," which is a measure of how much a city deviates from this overall average behavior. Essentially, it's a metric of how unusually mixed or segregated the city is, given its overall diversity.

When you look at US cities through this lens, you start to see some patterns that make sense. Chicago is the most segregated city in the country; Atlanta, Milwaukee, Philadelphia, St. Louis, DC, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, and Cleveland follow right behind. At the other extreme, the most integrated city is Irvine, CA. In fact, the 18 most integrated cities in the country are all in the West, mostly in California, Nevada, and Texas; the 22 least integrated are all in the East. (I'll see if I can pull a map together of this shortly)

This is important for obvious practical reasons: lots of important things for daily life, from funding schools, to running police departments, to the availability of jobs and financial services, tend to be very local. Segregated cities will then end up with much more variation between what different ethnic groups experience -- separate, but generally not equal, worlds -- while integrated cities are more like a single population.

From a practical perspective, this suggests a good measure of how important policies are to "unify" a city. In a highly segregated city, for example, it may be far more important to ensure that critical resources aren't too local, e.g. by having schools and police run at the city or region level rather than at the neighborhood level, whereas in more integrated cities, the benefits of increased locality may outweigh the costs.

Of course, this study only looked at one aspect of diversity, ethnicity measured using the five-category Census model. If we were to add finer resolution into this (e.g., identifying large immigrant groups as separate populations) or look at other variables (e.g., wealth), we might find far richer results. I suspect that adding wealth, for example, would change the result that "Eastern cities are more segregated than Western ones" into "Eastern cities are more segregated by race than Western ones." The study of the relationship between racial and financial segregation, and the scales of these segregation types in different parts of the country, would likely be extremely interesting.

h/t +Bill McGarvey for the link.
When I was a freshman at the University of Chicago in 1996, I heard the same thing again and again: Do not leave the boundaries of Hyde Park. Do not go north of 47th Street. Do not go south of 61st...
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Being Canadian, I don't like a huge disparity, or gated areas.  Here, the ultra-rich live in the community, but they're never home.  :)  
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Geology Field Photo: Argentiferous Galena at Silvermines, MO

I recently returned from a short field trip to the St. Francis Mountains area of SE MO with 11 students.  At the Silvermines area along the St. Francis river, one of the students (and also my nephew!) found this small metallic mineral in the old dump pile.  This especially metallic, shiny mineral is galena, a lead sulfide mineral that is often mined for lead.  It is easy to identify because of its highly metallic luster, silver color, and cubic shape.  Here the galena is found as one of the minerals within a ~1.4 Ga Precambrian granite.  The mine operated beginning in the late-1870s, and closed down in 1946.  The mine was not established because of the lead, but because the galena here also contains silver, a much more valuable metal.  Silver is 'argentum' in Latin, chemical symbol Ag, and the term "argentiferous" indicates that the galena contains a significant amount of silver.  A South American country is named after this element.  

#MineralMonday     #MacroMonday     #GeoPhotography    
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Geology "Field" Photo: Trilobites

Here are 5 different trilobites from +The Field Museum , seen in the Life Through Time exhibit.  Trilobites are an entire class of organisms - like mammals, birds, or insects.  They are entirely extinct, however, known only from the fossil record.  They flourished in the Cambrian Period (~520 Ma) and nearly all went extinct in the Devonian (~375 Ma), but one group of them survived until the Permian (~250 Ma).  There are ~17,000 known species spanning that time period of ~270 million years, and as such, they were quite successful.  They are arthropods, meaning they belong in the same general group as other invertebrates - having an exoskeleton, numerous legs, and a segmented body.  The lived in the oceans under water, mostly crawling around on the floors of continental seas.  

#paleontology     #fossils     #geology     #Geophotography     #FossilFriday  
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+Charles Carrigan Don't you think Noahs Flood happened ?
& don't you think all matter is the same age ?
Do all the Layers next to the trees on polystrate Fossils date the same per each individual Layer ?
o you have any Idea what the Earths crust minerals would have dated the day after God created them or Adam ?
(I couldn't find your picture section)
we have 9-Archaeopteryx
we have approx. 30-T-rexes
The 30-t-rexes are metamorphically within what, 100,000yrs within each other  ?
Yet against all odds, 30 found at the same "Stage" & how many 100,000yr stages prior, 48,000+ ???
So mathematically, should we not have random various staged sub-evolved T-rexes of approx. 48,000,000 or more & I think theres two Jokers so alike they're prolly just like a different bread, no more or less evolved than the 30
Jus sayin
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Charles Carrigan
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Funny Stuff  - 
 
Continents are driftin', mountains they're upliftin' ...

Wegener man you're trippin', the only thing that's driftin' is your brain.

#rapbattle     #pangea     #historyofscience   
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Charles Carrigan

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Jack Black is over the top of course, but Jimmy Fallon makes a perfect Nuno Bettencourt.  Remember these days  +Jonathan Bartling ?  :-)  
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This is a gamechanger for renewable energy.  Definitely worth a watch to hear Elon Musk debut the Tesla Powerwall.  

We have this handy fusion reactor in the sky.  You don't have to do anything, it just works.  Shows up everyday and produces ridiculous amounts of power.  

#energy   #climatechange   #Powerwall    

HT +Chris Ruhs 
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So interesting!
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Geology Field Photo: Johnson Shut-Ins  

A "Shut-In" in geologic terms is a place where a stream channel becomes much narrower.  The water must flow faster since there is less area in the stream cross-section.  This term is a regional term, used mainly in the Ozarks & Appalachia.  Shut-Ins are often places where the stream cannot be navigated by boats, even canoes, because the amount of rock present in the river makes it impossible to get through.  This photo is simply a small portion of the shut-ins at Johnson Shut-Ins State Park.  In this shot I wanted to simply focus on a small part of the stream to get a more artistic photo.  

#waterfallwednesday     #geophotography     #geologyfieldtrip     #StFrancisMtns  
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So you're hiking along a nature area, admiring the waterfalls, when suddenly a volcano erupts in the distance. His somewhat casual "wow" reaction is a lesson in understatement! Direct video of the eruption of the eruption of Calbuco, in Chile.

I'm told some of the language is not suitable for children, if they can understand what he is saying in his native tongue.

#volcano     #eruption    
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I'm from Chile and that is exactly what I would have said, and yes then i would have started running too.
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Geology "Field" Photo: Double Refraction in Calcite

Another shot from my recent visit to +The Field Museum​ , this one is of a sample of optical calcite placed over a piece of paper with the words "Double Refraction" on it.  You see two copies of the paper and the words through the crystal, due to the phenomenon.  So how does this work?  

Most materials, like air, water, and glass, are isotropic , which means that light passes through them in the same manner no matter how the material is oriented.  Many crystals, however, are anisotropic , which means that light behaves differently as it passes through the material.  Anisotropic crystals cause light to split into two separate rays as it passes through.  Those two rays have slightly different propagation directions, and therefore end up making the object behind the crystal look doubled.  One of those rays, called the ordinary ray , obeys Snell's Law, which a lot of people learn about in a physics class.  This is the law that governs the way that light appears to bend as it passes from air to water, i.e., refraction.  The light bends because air has an index of refraction of ~1.0, while water has an index of refraction ~1.3.  Light therefore travels about 30% slower through water than it does through air.  The other ray, however, does not obey Snell's Law, and is called the extraordinary ray .  Since there are two rays propagating in two different directions, light has been refracted through the crystal twice.  

Those two rays are also polarized, meaning that the light can only vibrate in a single direction.  The vibration directions of the two rays are at 90 degrees to one another.  This can be easily demonstrated by placing a piece of polarizing material over the calcite and rotating it.  So if you bring a set of polarizing sunglasses with you to the museum, you can show this effect to your friends, or random strangers also enjoying the minerals exhibit.  

The two rays also travel through the crystal at different velocities - there is a fast ray and a slow ray .  In the case of calcite, the ordinary ray is the slow ray, and the extraordinary ray is the fast ray.  The velocity of the ordinary ray is constant through a given sample of calcite, no matter how the crystal is oriented.  The velocity of the extraordinary ray, however, actually depends on the orientation of the sample.  The refractive index of the ordinary ray is ~1.66, while the extraordinary ray RI reaches its lowest value at ~1.49 when the crystal is held a certain way.  The difference between these two values of RI is called the birefringence , which for calcite reaches a maximum of ~0.17.  

Why calcite?  Calcite is typically the only mineral used to demonstrate double refraction, even though most crystals also produce this effect.  There are two main reasons for this.  For one, it has one of the highest values of birefringence, allowing it to be very effective at separating the two rays.  For example, another common mineral quartz has a maximum birefringence of only 0.009.  So while quartz also causes light rays to doubly refract, the difference between the two rays is so slight that you would not be able to see it very easily unless the sample was ~20-25x thicker!  Secondly, calcite can be very clear like the sample in this picture, which is also obviously necessary for this demonstration to work.  Many minerals simply aren't transparent enough at this thickness to allow light to travel all the way through.  

#mineralogy     #crystallography     #scienceeducation  
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nifty! 
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Geoscience education & research
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  • Olivet Nazarene University
    Prof. of Geoscience, 2004 - present
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Husband, Father, Geoscientist, Educator
Introduction
I'm a Professor of Geoscience at Olivet Nazarene University.  I'm a big fan of hiking, camping, & other outdoor activities.  I'm also into photography, technology, culture, politics, psychology, sociology, education, the interaction of religious faith with the above, music, games with friends, cooking, yadayada.  

On Google+, I post geology field photographs I have taken about once a week and give a brief explanation of what you are seeing from the eyes of a geologist.  These are kept in my album "Geology Field Photos".  I am also the owner & a moderator for the Geoscience Community here on G+, and I hope other geoscientists will join the discussions there.  
I sometimes write a blog about mineral resources & the environment & anything else geological I feel like called Earth-like Planet.  Circle me here on Google+ if those things sound of interest to you.  
Professionally, I study the application of mineralogy, petrology, & geochemistry to the understanding of mountain belts and tectonic processes, specifically in the Southern Appalachians.  My students and I use the tools of geochronology and thermobarometry to establish P-T-t paths of metamorphic rocks, and thereby constrain the timing and rates of tectonic processes.  Our current, ongoing project focuses on information that can be obtained by emphasizing the study of rutile & other minerals in pelitic schists.  

I also study the best practices for improvements in education within the MPG (mineralogy, petrology, & geochemistry) disciplines, as well as geoscience for general education.  My work has focused on a complete redesigned the way I teach mineralogy with an emphasis on geologic context, as well as the way students relate upper level course work back to material and skills they learned in previous courses.  I'm also in the process of designing video tutorials for optical mineralogy, which I hope to begin publishing on the web in the next 6 months.  
Bragging rights
My rock garden has more garnet than yours. My dog's name is Xenolith. I married a girl who took Calculus for fun in college. I defended my dissertation on the Winter Solstice. I can solve a 3x3 rubics cube in about 2 minutes.
Collections Charles is following
Education
  • University of Michigan
    PhD, Geology, 2000 - 2005
  • Vanderbilt University
    MS, Geology, 1998 - 2000
  • Olivet Nazarene University
    BS, Geology, 1992 - 1996
Charles Carrigan's +1's are the things they like, agree with, or want to recommend.
SPEAKING OF CREATION - by B.K. (Bev) Mitchell
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Editor's note: Dr. Mitchell is Professor Emeritus, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta. SPEAKING OF CREATION Seeing Cre

First day in Nepal, 8 days after the earthquake
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Sitting in the gate area of the Istanbul airport, waiting for my flight to Kathmandu airport, I looked around at the other passengers and wo

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Top 4 Energy Department Inventions Saving You Energy & Money at Home
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Top 4 Energy Department Inventions Saving You Energy & Money at Home

YouTube Tests New Video Player for Desktop
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YouTube tests a new HTML5 video player with a transparent control bar that hides when you're not using it, just like mobile video players. A

So... I'm just going to leave this here.
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So I mentioned last time that there was some big news coming. Well, this is that news. It’s time. For the past year and a half, we’ve been p

KCC starts GirlSTEM program designed to get girls excited about science
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Makayla Bowers received an invite to the GirlSTEM summer program in her cubby hole at Kennedy Middle Grade School. She read it and immediate

How Frank Bruni misunderstands Christians—and why it matters - On Faith ...
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The New York Times columnist argues church leaders should be “made” to abandon their views on same-sex relationships. If liberals want to en

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CBSSports.com APP
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Play bracket games. CBS Sports is your home for tournament games, news, scores, updates & live action. DOWNLOAD THE CBS SPORTS APP. I alread

God as a wild dog...and the Bible's other surprising divine metaphor...
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Bestselling author Lauren Winner explores provocative and often overlooked metaphors for God, such as a laboring woman and the "one who smel

The Snake from Hell
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First we had the "Frog from Hell." Now we have the "Snake from Hell." The fossilized remains of a snake have been discovered in Colombia tha

Salamander From Hell
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On the heels of the walking crododile from hell, we now have a car-sized salamander from a lake bed in Portugal. The animal, named Metoposau

Chlorine taste in water expected to go away soon
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A quick thaw last week is behind a noticeable change in the taste and odor in tap water for customers served by Aqua Illinois Inc., but what

God knows, evangelicals are more science-friendly than you think - Faith...
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Newly released data highlights common views -- and common goals to help society -- between scientists and Bible-centered Christian evangelic

Smelly water safe to drink, Aqua says
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Notice a funny smell when turning on the tap?

What is Google+, and who actually uses it? | Android Central
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Google's plans for total web domination have been scaled back to a simple, powerful social network with no shortage of killer features. Soci

Lots of family fun at this indoor water park/hotel. We really enjoyed our time!
Public - a month ago
reviewed a month ago
Nice place, but really expensive. The price is way too high for tent sites.
Public - 6 months ago
reviewed 6 months ago
Mark is a great guy and gives a great tour of his land, showing the ecological connections and the stunning mineral specimens. It is like visiting a mineral museum, but in the great outdoors! He has a real heart for conservation too.
Public - 6 months ago
reviewed 6 months ago
That was a delicious burger. Will definitely go back. Great food, great service.
Public - 9 months ago
reviewed 9 months ago
40 reviews
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There's lots to love about this park. The trees are wonderful in the fall. The stars are incredible at night! The camp sites are decent, with good fire pits and picnic tables. They could use some flatter tent pads in some areas. Some of them have really poorly designed drainage and one site we stayed at was very muddy. But as much as I love this place, I have to give it three stars for two reasons. First, the water quality issue. I've stayed at this campground many times over the past ~15 years, and the water always has a boil advisory. They really need to fix this and get clean, potable water that is safe to drink. I've never had a problem, but it is a risk that shouldn't be tolerated anymore at a Provincial Park. Secondly, the price of these sites is absurdly high. It costs ~$35+ per night just for tent sites. That's way too high for a spot to set up a tent esp. when the water can't be trusted.
• • •
Public - 6 months ago
reviewed 6 months ago
Fantastic beach
Public - 9 months ago
reviewed 9 months ago
Great playground equipment, great shade; great place for a family on the road to take a little break.
Public - 10 months ago
reviewed 10 months ago