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Chad Haney
Works at Northwestern University
Attended Illinois Institute of Technology
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Chad Haney

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Medical visualization, it's what I see and do
I was going to summarize an article about the history of medical visualization that was discussed in MIT Technology Review in 2012.
The Future of Medical Visualisation
http://goo.gl/HnpAQq
However, I think that the #OpenAccess  article that they reference does a good job on its own. It's kind of strange to think of a review of a review of a review article.
From individual to population: Challenges in Medical Visualization
http://arxiv.org/pdf/1206.1148v2

Rather than review the review of the review, I'll add a few comments and answer your questions. So read either the MIT Tech Rev article or the journal article and ask questions. This is an opportunity to talk to a scientist that works in the medical imaging field.

The article mentions multi-modal volume visualization. If you have been following my  #CHMedicalImagingSeries then you know that each imaging technique (modality) has strengths and weaknesses. Combining imaging modalities, like the MRI and CT below of my head, allow you to take advantages of the strengths and minimize the weaknesses. To get the best out of multi-modality imaging you need to be able to fuse the images. The technical term is image registration or some like image co-registration. There is a lot of research in just this technique to make it more automated. One common technique is called mutual information. Our brains can easily tell that the dark material in MRI is bone (e.g. my skull) and it should match the bright material in CT. Mutual information tells the computer to consider that bright could equal dark by normalizing the images first. The principal axes of the objects are also used to register (align/fuse) the two images. For therapy planning, both surgery (cosmetic) and tumor resection/radiation, multi-modality imaging can have a huge benefit. They mention that in 1993 Altobelli used multi-modality imaging to visualize the possible outcome of complicated craniofacial surgery.

Another use of medical imaging visualization is virtual colonoscopy. Visualization tools that you need are surface/volume rendering, skeletonization, and segmentation.
UCSF Radiology: What Virtual Colonoscopy CT Scans Look Like

Surface/volume rendering is just what it sounds like. The data is analyzed and the surface can be identified and displayed with shading and lighting such that it looks 3D. You can make it true 3D with the right equipment (3D glasses, 3D monitor, and software to split the data into left and right views) but that's not essential. It can't be emphasized enough that modern GPUs have made these difficult calculations become trivial. Some of the early animation work and medical image visualization required high end UNIX workstations. Now that same level of visualization can be done with a low-end gaming PC.

Segmentation is also, just as it sounds. There are automated and manual segmentation tools. For example in the heart and skeleton images below, the tissue of interest has been segmented out of the "background" tissue, e.g., the internal organs, muscle, etc. Again, there is research in this technique alone. Our brain can look at a medical image and identify parts of the brain or organs quickly. "Teaching" a computer program to do that automagically is very difficult, especially if there is motion due to breathing. In that case, you may have to use image registration to get rid of the motion blurring first.

Skeletonization is a process of identifying paths. For colonoscopy, that would be teaching the program to traverse the path of the colon. I've done work where we were measuring blood vessel diameters in a pulmonary hypertension model. Skeletonization was used to automatically identify each part of the vascular tree. From there, it was easy for the software to measure each diameter.

The first three images are fused images of a CT and MRI of me. The yellow surface rendered part is from CT as it shows bone (skull) very well. The grey-scale part of the image is MRI which shows soft tissue very well. The rest of the images are from a Toshiba 320 slice CT. In CT technology, a ring of detectors is used capture the signal from the x-ray source. Each ring is called a slice in clinical CT machines. For a while 64 slice was considered the best. Now 256 and 320 slice machines are becoming available. More slices means you can cover a larger area in a shorter amount of time. So highly detailed images of the heart can be acquired without motion artifacts from the beating heart. Likewise for the lungs.

Here's a few older posts that will hopefully help you understand the article.

Medical Imaging 101 pt 1 (http://goo.gl/LTWUf)
Medical Imaging 101 pt 2: CT (http://goo.gl/IHaFw)
Medical Imaging 101 pt 3: MRI (http://goo.gl/UVbiU)
Functional vs. anatomic image (http://goo.gl/UTPK7)
Visible Human project (http://goo.gl/cv2xU)
Eye of Horus post (http://goo.gl/qpxyh)

Image sources other than the above article:
Lung and brain CT images (http://goo.gl/HHhqSJ)

CT Heart (http://goo.gl/eqbFde)
#ScienceSunday  
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You are a troll, Hayden. Goodbye. 
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Baconluxious
This chocolate bar with bacon, aka Baconluxious, just jumped into my shopping basket. I heard +Luis Roca's voice say, "it's OK, go with the flow". It's actually very tasty.
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dances
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These are not the droids posts you were looking for.
#MayThe4thBeWithYou  
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Bad AT-AT
May the Fourth be with you.

Image via Reddit, hard to find the real source.

#MayTheFourthBeWithYou #MayThe4thBeWithYou
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Bad pet.
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Happy #FidoFriday  1 May 2015
 A couple weekends ago it was nice and warm. So we played until Ana was panting pretty good. The other photo shows Ana's new toy. It's a nice plush ball for playing indoors. Enjoy your weekend. It's supposed to be warm this weekend, like real spring.
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Well we DO get snow...about every other year. We're two years running now so maybe we'll get at least one day of snow this year, too. Maybe.
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Massive earthquake in Nepal
Most of you have heard by now that there was a massive earthquake in Nepal. My brother-in-law is on vacation in Nepal, last seen in Namche Bazar. According to a FB post, someone contacted the tour company he is using and he is safe and accounted for. Thanks to all of my G+ friends for helping. If you are looking for someone you can try this link:
http://google.org/personfinder/2015-nepal-earthquake/

+Gary Ray R has more information and links for organizations accepting donations.
http://goo.gl/Efwplp
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So sorry, I missed the update here. Saw the comments only now. My sympathies to you and your family. 
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Chad Haney

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PSA: Evidence-Based Science on Google+

Some scientific facts aren't up for debate in our science community. As scientists, we follow where the evidence leads, and the overwhelming evidence supports anthropogenic climate change, the efficacy of vaccines, the soundness of evolutionary theory, and the safety of GMO. There is vigorous debate within various scientific disciplines on how these settled areas of science work and what future outcomes of (for example) climate change or evolution will be. However, debate over mechanisms and outcomes should never be considered debate over the basic facts of a subject. A person claiming, for example, that anthropogenic climate change is a hoax is making an extraordinary claim against a huge body of peer-reviewed evidence, and barring extraordinary, credible, peer-reviewed evidence to support that claim, a post making such a claim will be removed from this community. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof.

The focus of our community is on research trying to address these issues, and not to rehash or debate the evidence. Unlike politicians, we don't take positions to win votes or gain popularity. Rather, we ground our positions in the best evidence available to us, recognizing that scientific evidence may be incomplete but is constantly self-correcting. 

What is scientific consensus? :  https://plus.google.com/u/0/+Scienceongoogleplus/posts/5LRg4oTFAFU

Cartoon credit: http://joyreactor.com/post/805720

 
#ScienceSunday  
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Actually, there's a small number of people who fan Tesla not in the fanboy way but in the historian way.
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Medical Imaging Collection
Here's the logical first collection from me. I used to use the hashtag #CHMedicalImagingSeries  but hashtag searching got wonky when Google created 'Explore'. It seems like the Collection rollout has made searching hashtags without the hashtag, e.g., CHMedicalImagingSeries impossible. I get zero results when I know I have plenty using that hashtag. Oh, well. I'm sure I'll be making more collections as I think this is a great addition to G+.
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I've had the same problem, +Chad Haney and +Rajini Rao. Usually opening hashtags in a new tab worked, but sometimes switched me out of the page. It's definitely something of an issue right now...(Good collection, by the way!)
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Party on May the 4th
May the 4th be with you.

Image via Reddit.
#MayTheFourthBeWithYou #MayThe4thBeWithYou
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EXCELLENT!!!!   : D
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Piece be with you
Small white pizza with goat cheese and basil (I blame +Luis Roca and +Robyn Miller). We also had a medium red pizza with sausage, pepperoni, spinach, and onions. All washed down with two Camel Toe Egyptian pale ales. 9.8% ABV, oh yea.
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Stay safe, +Rajini Rao 
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Give $1 to 'Nepal Earthquake: Clean Water Initiative' and Chad will match it. Support United States Fund for UNICEF together! – One Today by Google https://onetoday.google.com/m/77icp2ql

As some of you know, my brother in law died at the Base Camp at Mt Everest after the earthquake. I plan to make other donations in honor of Vinh. Rest in peace. 
Did you know? The risk of waterborne disease in earthquake affected districts in Nepal is drastically increasing due to limited access to safe water and sanitation.
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My condolences, +Chad Haney.
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Bangers and Mash
When I was visiting +Nikki C and +Steve c, I jokingly said I'd like to have Bangers and Mash for dinner. Not only did Steve take that seriously, but he made some seriously tasty bangers and mash. The sausages were made locally, if I remember right. When I saw 'authentic' Irish bangers at the store, I figured I'd give them a go. They were super bland; just terrible. Maybe English bangers are better than Irish bangers. Maybe they send the bland ones across the pond.

The second experiment is grilled mochi with teriyaki sauce. That actually turned out pretty good, better than the bangers for sure. (That's a salmon burger behind the mochi.)
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We didn't have anything to make the gravy. My sister doesn't cook much. 
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Chad's Collections
People
Have him in circles
69,576 people
Gabriel Lui's profile photo
Angel Stewart's profile photo
Um-e-Hani Ji's profile photo
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lamar abu lamar's profile photo
natasya claudia's profile photo
Isaac Kuo's profile photo
Kapil Thakur's profile photo
Education
  • Illinois Institute of Technology
    BS Chemical Engineering, 1994
  • University of Illinois at Chicago
    PhD Bioengineering, 2001
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I'm the medical imaging, Red Wings, Formula One, Tech guy.
Introduction
I'm a scientist/engineer interested in image based biomarkers, i.e., non-invasively visualizing disease or response to therapy. I mainly research cancer using MRI, PET/SPECT/CT, and EPRI but I'm also interested in cardiovascular research.

Sports: Big formula one fan, Detroit Red Wings, Chicago Bears, and Chicago White Sox.

Music: I like pretty much everything except country. Big fan of Pink Floyd. Bob Marley is a god-like-hero. I love house music when I'm programming or doing image analysis. Miles Davis is a mutical genius (say it in Gumby's voice).

Misc: love dogs, science/technology (gadgets), cars, bicycling... Also Member of The Incorrigibles.

My passion is science and science is my career choice, so I am grateful to be a co-curator for #ScienceSunday.

Don't circle me if you are not open minded and interested in science. I'm very much against the anti-intellectualism/anti-science movement.

There is a cult of ignorance in the United States, and there always has been. The strain of anti-intellectualism has been a constant thread winding its way through our political and cultural life, nurtured by the false notion that democracy means that "my ignorance is just as good as your knowledge."
     Isaac Asimov, column in Newsweek (21 January 1980)

A few more hashtags for me #CHMedicalImagingSeries
Bragging rights
There's a whole country named after me. I also developed a blood substitute when I was a graduate student.
Work
Occupation
Scientist
Skills
Medical Imaging methods
Employment
  • Northwestern University
    Research Professor, 2012 - present
    Managing Director of the Center for Advanced Molecular Imaging
  • University of Chicago
    Research Professor, 2002 - 2012
    In charge of pre-clinical nuclear imaging. Lead multiple cancer research projects involving pre-clinical imaging.
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Gender
Male
Relationship
Married