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Chad Haney
Works at Northwestern University
Attended Illinois Institute of Technology
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Chad Haney

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Medical visualization, it's what I see and do
I was going to summarize an article about the history of medical visualization that was discussed in MIT Technology Review in 2012.
The Future of Medical Visualisation
However, I think that the #OpenAccess  article that they reference does a good job on its own. It's kind of strange to think of a review of a review of a review article.
From individual to population: Challenges in Medical Visualization

Rather than review the review of the review, I'll add a few comments and answer your questions. So read either the MIT Tech Rev article or the journal article and ask questions. This is an opportunity to talk to a scientist that works in the medical imaging field.

The article mentions multi-modal volume visualization. If you have been following my  #CHMedicalImagingSeries then you know that each imaging technique (modality) has strengths and weaknesses. Combining imaging modalities, like the MRI and CT below of my head, allow you to take advantages of the strengths and minimize the weaknesses. To get the best out of multi-modality imaging you need to be able to fuse the images. The technical term is image registration or some like image co-registration. There is a lot of research in just this technique to make it more automated. One common technique is called mutual information. Our brains can easily tell that the dark material in MRI is bone (e.g. my skull) and it should match the bright material in CT. Mutual information tells the computer to consider that bright could equal dark by normalizing the images first. The principal axes of the objects are also used to register (align/fuse) the two images. For therapy planning, both surgery (cosmetic) and tumor resection/radiation, multi-modality imaging can have a huge benefit. They mention that in 1993 Altobelli used multi-modality imaging to visualize the possible outcome of complicated craniofacial surgery.

Another use of medical imaging visualization is virtual colonoscopy. Visualization tools that you need are surface/volume rendering, skeletonization, and segmentation.
UCSF Radiology: What Virtual Colonoscopy CT Scans Look Like

Surface/volume rendering is just what it sounds like. The data is analyzed and the surface can be identified and displayed with shading and lighting such that it looks 3D. You can make it true 3D with the right equipment (3D glasses, 3D monitor, and software to split the data into left and right views) but that's not essential. It can't be emphasized enough that modern GPUs have made these difficult calculations become trivial. Some of the early animation work and medical image visualization required high end UNIX workstations. Now that same level of visualization can be done with a low-end gaming PC.

Segmentation is also, just as it sounds. There are automated and manual segmentation tools. For example in the heart and skeleton images below, the tissue of interest has been segmented out of the "background" tissue, e.g., the internal organs, muscle, etc. Again, there is research in this technique alone. Our brain can look at a medical image and identify parts of the brain or organs quickly. "Teaching" a computer program to do that automagically is very difficult, especially if there is motion due to breathing. In that case, you may have to use image registration to get rid of the motion blurring first.

Skeletonization is a process of identifying paths. For colonoscopy, that would be teaching the program to traverse the path of the colon. I've done work where we were measuring blood vessel diameters in a pulmonary hypertension model. Skeletonization was used to automatically identify each part of the vascular tree. From there, it was easy for the software to measure each diameter.

The first three images are fused images of a CT and MRI of me. The yellow surface rendered part is from CT as it shows bone (skull) very well. The grey-scale part of the image is MRI which shows soft tissue very well. The rest of the images are from a Toshiba 320 slice CT. In CT technology, a ring of detectors is used capture the signal from the x-ray source. Each ring is called a slice in clinical CT machines. For a while 64 slice was considered the best. Now 256 and 320 slice machines are becoming available. More slices means you can cover a larger area in a shorter amount of time. So highly detailed images of the heart can be acquired without motion artifacts from the beating heart. Likewise for the lungs.

Here's a few older posts that will hopefully help you understand the article.

Medical Imaging 101 pt 1 (
Medical Imaging 101 pt 2: CT (
Medical Imaging 101 pt 3: MRI (
Functional vs. anatomic image (
Visible Human project (
Eye of Horus post (

Image sources other than the above article:
Lung and brain CT images (

CT Heart (
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Hi my name patricia
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OK, I'll play along. I couldn't really think of threes so this is the best I could come up with.

Dr. Strange because I enjoyed that comic book when I was young lad. I often let my mind wander into thinking of other realms/possibilities.

MacGyver because I used to take stuff apart even when I was a toddler. I like to rig stuff up. Sometimes because I'm lazy to get the proper tool but usually because I can't afford the proper tool.

Inuyasha because I'm a half breed too. Also, I like fantasy and the story.
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Oh, +rare avis​, so who are your three characters?
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Master Con
I've been using Twitter for a while but still feel like a n00b on Twitter. Anyway, I stumbled on this Tweet by +Pamela L. Gay. I used to do a lot of science outreach in the early days of G+ via #ScienceSunday. Scott was somewhat involved when ScienceSunday started branching into HOAs. I more or less do my own science outreach now. Based on my interaction with him and the subsequent people that have come forward, I can only say bravo to the victims that have the courage to warn others. The con continues when people are so traumatized that they can't speak up. That's by design. Read this well written piece on Medium. There are excellent links to learn about tactics such as "gas lighting".

Here's just a handful of Tweets that support what the Medium post says.
Pamela L. Gay – Verified account @starstryder. Another day, another #astroSH long con revealed. I've confirmed this story across multiple sources. I believe her. …
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Congress #DoYourJob.
I'm working this weekend. We aren't asking for you to work overtime, Congress. We're just asking you to do your job. You're getting paid by us to do a job and your performance is pathetic.
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+Brigitte W.​, that's the beauty of our Constitution, it evolves. However, I'd argue that career politicians would still be against their intentions. 
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"They may be drinkers Robin (+Michelle C), but they're also human beings" Happy #BatmanDay
@BatLabels I purchased the Batman box set with no intention of ever opening it. Today I will probably break that vow and binge!#BatmanDay. Sorry, Twitter is taking too long to load. Try again. Home · Sign up · Log in · Search · About. More like this; Less like this; Cancel. Not on Twitter?
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Wow, back to the birther schtick
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Going around in circles
Does this mean McLaren will get lost on the circuit? Remember when Apple had problems with their map?
Apple Inc has approached British Formula One team owner McLaren Technology Group for a strategic investment or a potential buyout, the Financial Times reported, citing sources.
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The bonus for McLaren would be that they could claim they won all the races and the media would believe them. 
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Who rescued whom: Eric & Peety
Sure, stories are nice, but do pets really improve human health? No less an authority than the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says yes. Having a pet can help decrease blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and feelings of loneliness, the CDC says, while increasing opportunities for exercise and socializing with other humans. And there's increasing evidence that interaction with pets helps people cope with challenges including PTSD, Alzheimer's and the end of life.

Many of you pet owners might say, "well duh, of course having a pet, especially a dog, confers health benefits". There's research that supports the idea that there's more than just physical health benefits. Pet ownership is linked with feeling less lonely and greater self worth. Furthermore, there's evidence that pet ownership is associated with greater social capital, i.e., neighborliness, friendliness.

So get a hanky, watch the video, and go to the pet shelter to be rescued, unless you already have been rescued.

Not Just "A Walking the Dog": Dog Walking and Pet Play and Their Association With Recommended Physical Activity Among Adolescents.
Am J Health Promot. 2015 Jul-Aug;29(6):353-6. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.130522-ARB-262. Epub 2014 Aug 27.

Canine Comfort: Pet Affinity Buffers the Negative Impact of Ambivalence over Emotional Expression on Perceived Social Support.
Pers Individ Dif. 2014 Oct;68:23-27.

Pet ownership may attenuate loneliness among older adult primary care patients who live alone.
Aging Ment Health. 2014;18(3):394-9. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2013.837147. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

The pet connection: pets as a conduit for social capital?
Soc Sci Med. 2005 Sep;61(6):1159-73. Epub 2005 Mar 3.


h/t +Bill McGarvey and +Rajini Rao
Eric O'Grey was 51, obese and suffering from diabetes and high cholesterol when he took home an overweight shelter dog. Now the duo are headlining a campaign on how pets improve humans' lives.
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So how many of you had watery eyes watching that video? Be honest, hands up.
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@BatLabels I'd ask why those are kept in the bat-copter and not the bat-boat, but he's Batman and clearly knows what he's doing. Herphomes · 5h5 hours ago. Herphomes @herphomes. @BatLabels this was my favorite part! Charlie Law. 5h5 hours ago. Charlie Law @charlielawyer.
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Glad you're OK, +Bruce Shark​
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+Michelle C always knows when it's #BatmanDay

Not on Twitter? Sign up, tune into the things you care about, and get updates as they happen. Sign upLog in. You won't see these kinds of Tweets next time you're here. You'll see more of these kinds of Tweets every time you're here. You won't see these kinds of Tweets next time you're here.
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I figured that kid was your protege, +Michelle C.
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There's still some kindness and generosity left in the world
We are often bombarded with only the ills of humanity by the media. Here's a sweet story about Fidencio Sanchez, an 89-year-old paleta vendor in Little Village in Chicago. Strangers across the globe felt moved enough to donate a little something for his retirement. The goal was $3,000. The GoFundMe is over $300,000.

One little pet peeve (pedantic gripe), is that a lot of the media reporting this story keeps calling Mr. Sanchez an ice cream vendor. He sells paletas, which are like fruit popsicle, not ice cream.
Donations for an 89-year-old paleta vendor in Little Village have skyrocketed to more than $337,000 in five days, making it the largest GoFundMe campaign ever in Illinois.
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+Paul Lamoureux, the part about their daughter passing away this year makes them even more deserving.
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Chad's Collections
I'm the medical imaging, Red Wings, Formula One, Tech guy.
I'm a scientist/engineer interested in image based biomarkers, i.e., non-invasively visualizing disease or response to therapy. I mainly research cancer using MRI, PET/SPECT/CT, and EPRI but I'm also interested in cardiovascular research.

Sports: Big formula one fan, Detroit Red Wings, Chicago Bears, and Chicago White Sox.

Music: I like pretty much everything except country. Big fan of Pink Floyd. Bob Marley is a god-like-hero. I love house music when I'm programming or doing image analysis. Miles Davis is a mutical genius (say it in Gumby's voice).

Misc: love dogs, science/technology (gadgets), cars, bicycling... Also Member of The Incorrigibles.

My passion is science and science is my career choice, so I am grateful to be a co-curator for #ScienceSunday.

Don't circle me if you are not open minded and interested in science. I'm very much against the anti-intellectualism/anti-science movement.

There is a cult of ignorance in the United States, and there always has been. The strain of anti-intellectualism has been a constant thread winding its way through our political and cultural life, nurtured by the false notion that democracy means that "my ignorance is just as good as your knowledge."
     Isaac Asimov, column in Newsweek (21 January 1980)

A few more hashtags for me #CHMedicalImagingSeries
Bragging rights
There's a whole country named after me. I also developed a blood substitute when I was a graduate student.
  • Illinois Institute of Technology
    BS Chemical Engineering, 1994
  • University of Illinois at Chicago
    PhD Bioengineering, 2001
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Collections Chad is following
Medical Imaging methods
  • Northwestern University
    Research Professor, 2012 - present
    Managing Director of the Center for Advanced Molecular Imaging
  • University of Chicago
    Research Professor, 2002 - 2012
    In charge of pre-clinical nuclear imaging. Lead multiple cancer research projects involving pre-clinical imaging.
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