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Chad Haney
Works at Northwestern University
Attended Illinois Institute of Technology
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Chad Haney

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Medical visualization, it's what I see and do
I was going to summarize an article about the history of medical visualization that was discussed in MIT Technology Review in 2012.
The Future of Medical Visualisation
http://goo.gl/HnpAQq
However, I think that the #OpenAccess  article that they reference does a good job on its own. It's kind of strange to think of a review of a review of a review article.
From individual to population: Challenges in Medical Visualization
http://arxiv.org/pdf/1206.1148v2

Rather than review the review of the review, I'll add a few comments and answer your questions. So read either the MIT Tech Rev article or the journal article and ask questions. This is an opportunity to talk to a scientist that works in the medical imaging field.

The article mentions multi-modal volume visualization. If you have been following my  #CHMedicalImagingSeries then you know that each imaging technique (modality) has strengths and weaknesses. Combining imaging modalities, like the MRI and CT below of my head, allow you to take advantages of the strengths and minimize the weaknesses. To get the best out of multi-modality imaging you need to be able to fuse the images. The technical term is image registration or some like image co-registration. There is a lot of research in just this technique to make it more automated. One common technique is called mutual information. Our brains can easily tell that the dark material in MRI is bone (e.g. my skull) and it should match the bright material in CT. Mutual information tells the computer to consider that bright could equal dark by normalizing the images first. The principal axes of the objects are also used to register (align/fuse) the two images. For therapy planning, both surgery (cosmetic) and tumor resection/radiation, multi-modality imaging can have a huge benefit. They mention that in 1993 Altobelli used multi-modality imaging to visualize the possible outcome of complicated craniofacial surgery.

Another use of medical imaging visualization is virtual colonoscopy. Visualization tools that you need are surface/volume rendering, skeletonization, and segmentation.
UCSF Radiology: What Virtual Colonoscopy CT Scans Look Like

Surface/volume rendering is just what it sounds like. The data is analyzed and the surface can be identified and displayed with shading and lighting such that it looks 3D. You can make it true 3D with the right equipment (3D glasses, 3D monitor, and software to split the data into left and right views) but that's not essential. It can't be emphasized enough that modern GPUs have made these difficult calculations become trivial. Some of the early animation work and medical image visualization required high end UNIX workstations. Now that same level of visualization can be done with a low-end gaming PC.

Segmentation is also, just as it sounds. There are automated and manual segmentation tools. For example in the heart and skeleton images below, the tissue of interest has been segmented out of the "background" tissue, e.g., the internal organs, muscle, etc. Again, there is research in this technique alone. Our brain can look at a medical image and identify parts of the brain or organs quickly. "Teaching" a computer program to do that automagically is very difficult, especially if there is motion due to breathing. In that case, you may have to use image registration to get rid of the motion blurring first.

Skeletonization is a process of identifying paths. For colonoscopy, that would be teaching the program to traverse the path of the colon. I've done work where we were measuring blood vessel diameters in a pulmonary hypertension model. Skeletonization was used to automatically identify each part of the vascular tree. From there, it was easy for the software to measure each diameter.

The first three images are fused images of a CT and MRI of me. The yellow surface rendered part is from CT as it shows bone (skull) very well. The grey-scale part of the image is MRI which shows soft tissue very well. The rest of the images are from a Toshiba 320 slice CT. In CT technology, a ring of detectors is used capture the signal from the x-ray source. Each ring is called a slice in clinical CT machines. For a while 64 slice was considered the best. Now 256 and 320 slice machines are becoming available. More slices means you can cover a larger area in a shorter amount of time. So highly detailed images of the heart can be acquired without motion artifacts from the beating heart. Likewise for the lungs.

Here's a few older posts that will hopefully help you understand the article.

Medical Imaging 101 pt 1 (http://goo.gl/LTWUf)
Medical Imaging 101 pt 2: CT (http://goo.gl/IHaFw)
Medical Imaging 101 pt 3: MRI (http://goo.gl/UVbiU)
Functional vs. anatomic image (http://goo.gl/UTPK7)
Visible Human project (http://goo.gl/cv2xU)
Eye of Horus post (http://goo.gl/qpxyh)

Image sources other than the above article:
Lung and brain CT images (http://goo.gl/HHhqSJ)

CT Heart (http://goo.gl/eqbFde)
#ScienceSunday  
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Thanks +Meg L​. 
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Y'all ready for the Superb Owl?
Resharing this because it seemed to make people laugh.
 
Pro-tip for combining the #Superbowl  and G+
Don't give up #ScienceSunday  because of the Super Bowl. Here's a protip from Reddit. Watch the Super Bowl and #ScienceSunday  and snack on popcorn. Problem solved. You are welcome.
Probable image source: http://goo.gl/u0gZp
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+Meirav M., apparently it is.
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2016 can just knock it off already
Dave Mirra was a pioneer in freestyle BMX. He's only 4 years younger than me. I just can't believe it.

Maurice White of Earth, Wind, and Fire also passed away today. Last month, David Bowie, Alan Rickman, Otis Clay, Lemmy,

Stop it already. 
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+Peter Lindelauf​, we've had so many, I can't keep track. 
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+Sarah Lester​ jinxed me. How's your day going? 
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Bad: You don't notice the toilet paper is out when you go into the stall.
Good: You visually verify the presence of paper and move to a stall that has enough.
Worse: You discover too late that there is plenty of paper, but the roll is jammed and won't turn.
Epic Win: You have enough tools on your person to fix it.
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I guess the inverse Fourier transform is when you divide by Pi.

h/t +Rachel Blum
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+Gary Ray R I loved when I got a graphical calculator in university how much easier everything got.
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Happy #FidoFriday.
I haven't posted pictures of the furball in a while. So here you go. How's your weekend shaping up? Any plans with your four legged friend? 
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My four legged friend is taking care of me and guarding me while I'm getting over a cold. She may only weigh 10 pounds and come up to my shins but don't tell her that. She's a mighty wolf as far as she's concerned.
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Have him in circles
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Are you going to watch the #SuperBowl ?

Image via Reddit.
66 votes  -  votes visible to Public
Yes, Super Bowl
32%
No, Puppy Bowl
20%
Neither, let me 'splain it to you
48%
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+Brian Peters, I didn't forget.
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That's a long row to hoe
What started as a question about stability of seeds in the context of farmers needing to weed, turned into a question about seed stability in terms of plant conservation. Read on to learn about the longest running experiment.

Some of you might be thinking, hey, the longest experiment is that tar drop experiment. Well, it's not quite the longest.
http://www.nature.com/news/world-s-slowest-moving-drop-caught-on-camera-at-last-1.13418
 
In the fall of 1879, Dr. William James Beal walked to a secret spot on Michigan State University’s campus and planted a strange crop: 20 narrow-necked glass...
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That's a good one, +Jyoti Q Dahiya​. 
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Alpha Klaus and biscotti?
+Gnotic Pasta asked for the recipe for the biscotti my wife made. I knew I had a taken a picture during the baking but couldn't find it. Well I found the photo once I remembered what the focus of the picture was. In the background of the picture, you can see stacks of biscotti after the first bake. You cut them into pieces and then bake each side to make them a little crisp. We skip the white chocolate part in the recipe below. BTW, both the biscotti and Christmas porter are very good.

Biscotti with cranberries and pistachios.
http://www.epicurious.com/recipes/food/views/holiday-biscotti-with-cranberries-and-pistachios-108977

If you are really into beer, I post my beer stuff here.
https://plus.google.com/u/0/communities/108323395135235203192
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+Vladimir Oka, I love the Hermetus bottle opener/sealer. I bought it locally.

http://goodbeerhunting.com/shop/3-in-1-hermetus-bottle-opener-and-sealer
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I really laughed out loud.
I'm glad the Twitter thread didn't have consummated.
hey @SenTedCruz can I be your campaign manager I have some slogan #ideas · Embedded image. 8:44 PM - 1 Feb 2016. 255 480. Reply to @Oatmeal. Replies. Terry. 8m8 minutes ago. Terry @albedo777. @Oatmeal @SenTedCruz Better off Ted? Andrew Hackard · 8m8 minutes ago. Andrew Hackard @RedPenOfDoom ...
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All I know is I wouldn't buy a used car from the man with that face.
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So glad these fools were finally arrested.

h/t +cobalt please​
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I feel my tax dollars were misused.  For what I pay, the FBI could have shot more of them.
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Hold on, I brought backup.
Millions of people watched the video of how a Florida cop responded to a noise complaint of kids playing basketball on the street by joining in on the ...
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Saw a video last night.....very cool.
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Chad's Collections
People
Have him in circles
70,333 people
NANDO GF's profile photo
Best Health & Tips's profile photo
Tawk Mawi's profile photo
Bruce Wells's profile photo
Sandy Stewart's profile photo
rob her's profile photo
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T Gheorghiu's profile photo
Work
Occupation
Scientist
Skills
Medical Imaging methods
Employment
  • Northwestern University
    Research Professor, 2012 - present
    Managing Director of the Center for Advanced Molecular Imaging
  • University of Chicago
    Research Professor, 2002 - 2012
    In charge of pre-clinical nuclear imaging. Lead multiple cancer research projects involving pre-clinical imaging.
Basic Information
Gender
Male
Relationship
Married
Apps with Google+ Sign-in
  • landshark-zenkoi
Story
Tagline
I'm the medical imaging, Red Wings, Formula One, Tech guy.
Introduction
I'm a scientist/engineer interested in image based biomarkers, i.e., non-invasively visualizing disease or response to therapy. I mainly research cancer using MRI, PET/SPECT/CT, and EPRI but I'm also interested in cardiovascular research.

Sports: Big formula one fan, Detroit Red Wings, Chicago Bears, and Chicago White Sox.

Music: I like pretty much everything except country. Big fan of Pink Floyd. Bob Marley is a god-like-hero. I love house music when I'm programming or doing image analysis. Miles Davis is a mutical genius (say it in Gumby's voice).

Misc: love dogs, science/technology (gadgets), cars, bicycling... Also Member of The Incorrigibles.

My passion is science and science is my career choice, so I am grateful to be a co-curator for #ScienceSunday.

Don't circle me if you are not open minded and interested in science. I'm very much against the anti-intellectualism/anti-science movement.

There is a cult of ignorance in the United States, and there always has been. The strain of anti-intellectualism has been a constant thread winding its way through our political and cultural life, nurtured by the false notion that democracy means that "my ignorance is just as good as your knowledge."
     Isaac Asimov, column in Newsweek (21 January 1980)

A few more hashtags for me #CHMedicalImagingSeries
Bragging rights
There's a whole country named after me. I also developed a blood substitute when I was a graduate student.
Collections Chad is following
Education
  • Illinois Institute of Technology
    BS Chemical Engineering, 1994
  • University of Illinois at Chicago
    PhD Bioengineering, 2001
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