Mammatus Clouds Over Saskatchewan
Image Credit & Licence: Craig Lindsay, +Wikipedia

Normal cloud bottoms are flat. This is because moist warm air that rises and cools will condense into water droplets at a specific temperature, which usually corresponds to a very specific height. As water droplets grow, an opaque cloud forms. Under some conditions, however, cloud pockets can develop that contain large droplets of water or ice that fall into clear air as they evaporate. Such pockets may occur in turbulent air near a thunderstorm. Resulting mammatus clouds can appear especially dramatic if sunlit from the side. These mammatus clouds were photographed over Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada during the past summer.
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And we would've never known without the movie...
 Some kind soul who knows what I am doing is posting these on blogs. I am only writing this for myself, and it is earnest beseech not to mistake for its lengthiness which is stored in my face book for further usage. Let not any sensibilities, susceptibilities, sentimentalities, be hurt by the technical terms or for that matter the length of dilation, delineation and dissemination. Mammatus, also known as mammatocumulus (meaning "mammary cloud" or "breast cloud"), is a meteorological term applied to the internationalism paradigmatic point of view as a possible restatement of the possible deviance concerns with the normative pattern, internal differentiation, structural morphology and axiomatic prevaricational and predicational and postulation ally alcovish aspect of usual cloud formation expectations. a cellular pattern of pouches hanging underneath the base of a cloud. The name mammatus, derived from the Latin mamma (meaning "udder" or "breast"), refers to a resemblance between the characteristic shape of these clouds and the breast of a woman.
Mammatus are most often consummated, consolidated, consubstatiated  concertized and reinforced with the optimum development of system of clouds for the dynamical improvement of instrumental environmental efficacious-ness  associated with the anvil cloud and also severe thunderstorms. They often extend from the base of a cumulonimbus, but may also be found under altocumulus, altostratus, stratocumulus, and cirrus clouds, as well as volcanic ash clouds. In the United States, sky gazers may be most familiar with the very distinct and more common cumulonimbus mammatus. When occurring in cumulonimbus, mammatus are often indicative of a particularly strong storm or maybe even a tornadic storm. Nomadic singularities, surface topology, imprisoned complementarities, primitive ground of forms, Ross-by Deformation Index or ratio, intensely sheared environment in which mammatus form, aviators are strongly cautioned to avoid cumulonimbus with mammatus.Quakitative gradient of structural differentiation and affirmed solidarity abstraction with air  form the bastion of the common patterns of manifested clouds such as these. 
Mammatus may appear as smooth, ragged or lumpy lobes and may be opaque or translucent. Because mammatus occur as a grouping of lobes, the way they clump together can vary from an isolated cluster to a field of mammae that spread over hundreds of kilometers to being organized along a line, and may be composed of unequal or similarly-sized lobes. The individual mammatus lobe average diameters of 1–3 km and lengths on average of 0.5 km. A lobe can last an average of 10 minutes, but a whole cluster of mamma can range from 15 minutes to a few hours. They usually are composed of ice, but also can be a mixture of ice and liquid water or be composed of almost entirely liquid water.
True to their ominous appearance, ontological consonations, evolutionist model, coextensive determination and apriori representation, mammatus clouds are often harbingers of a coming storm or other extreme weather system. Typically composed primarily of ice, they can extend for hundreds of miles in each direction and individual formations can remain visibly static for ten to fifteen minutes at a time. While they may appear foreboding they are merely the messengers - appearing around, before or even after severe weather.
Hypothesized formation mechanisms
The existence of many different types of mammatus clouds, each with distinct properties and occurring in distinct environments, has given rise to multiple hypothesized formation mechanisms, which are also relevant to other cloud forms.
One environmental trend is shared by all of the formation mechanisms hypothesized for mammatus clouds: sharp gradients in temperature, moisture and momentum (wind shear) across the anvil cloud/sub-cloud air boundary, which strongly influences interactions therein. The following are the proposed mechanisms, each described with its shortcomings:
The anvil of a cumulonimbus cloud gradually subsides as it spreads out from its source cloud. As air descends, it warms. However, the cloudy air will warm more slowly (at the moist adiabatic lapse rate) than the sub-cloud, dry air (at the dry adiabatic lapse rate). Because of the differential warming, the cloud/sub-cloud layer destabilizes and convective overturning can occur, creating a lumpy cloud-base. The problems with this theory are that there are observations of mammatus lobes that do not support the presence of strong subsidence in the lobes, and that it is difficult to separate the processes of hydrometeor fallout and cloud-base subsidence, thus rendering it unclear as to whether either process is occurring.
That said, cooling due to hydrometeor fallout is a second proposed formation mechanism. As hydrometeors fall into the dry sub-cloud air, the air containing the precipitation cools due to evaporation or sublimation. Being now cooler than the environmental air and unstable, they descend until in static equilibrium, at which point a restoring force curves the edges of the fallout back up, creating the lobed appearance. One problem with this theory is that observations show that cloud-base evaporation does not always produce mammatus. This mechanism could be responsible for the earliest stage of development, but other processes (namely process 1, above) may come into play as the lobes are formed and mature.
There may also be destabilization at cloud base due to melting. If the cloud base exists near the freezing line, then the cooling in the immediate air caused by melting can lead to convective overturning, just as in the processes above. However, this strict temperature environment is not always present.
The above processes specifically relied on the destabilization of the sub-cloud layer due to adiabatic or latent heating effects. Discounting the thermodynamical effects of hydrometeor fallout, another mechanism proposes that dynamics of the fallout alone are enough to create the lobes. Inhomogeneities in the masses of the hydrometeors along the cloud-base may cause inhomogeneous descent along the base. Frictional drag and associated eddy-like structures create the lobed appearance of the fallout. The main shortcoming of this theory is that vertical velocities in the lobes have been observed to be greater than the fall speeds of the hydrometeors within them; thus, there should be a dynamical downward forcing, as well.
Another method, that was first proposed by Kerry Emanuel, is called cloud-base detrainment instability (CDI), which acts very much like convective cloud-top entrainment. In CDI, cloudy air is mixed into the dry sub-cloud air rather than precipitating into it. The cloudy layer destabilizes due to evaporation cooling and mammatus are formed. Issues with this mechanism are that it fails to explain why mammatus are located in specific locations in the anvil rather than under the entire anvil, and it fails to explain how the mixing originates.
Clouds undergo thermal reorganization due to radioactive effects as they evolve. There are a couple of ideas as to how radiation can cause mammatus to form. One is that, because clouds radiatively cool (Stefan-Boltzmann law) very efficiently at their tops, entire pockets of cool, negatively buoyant cloud can penetrate downward through the entire layer and emerge as mammatus at cloud-base. Another idea is that as the cloud-base warms due to radiative heating from land surface's long wave emission, the base destabilizes and overturns. This method is only valid for optically thick clouds. However, the nature of anvil clouds is that they are largely made up of ice, and are therefore relatively optically thin.
Gravity waves are proposed to be the formation mechanism of linearly organized mammatus clouds. Indeed, wave patterns have been observed in the mammatus environment, but this is mostly due to gravity wave creation as a response to a convective updraft impinging upon the tropopause and spreading out in wave form over the entirety of the anvil. Therefore, this method does not explain the prevalence of mammatus clouds in one part of the anvil versus another. Furthermore, time and size scales for gravity waves and mammatus do not match up entirely. Gravity wave trains may be responsible for organizing the mammatus rather than forming them.
Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability is prevalent along cloud boundaries and results in the formation of wave-like protrusions (called Kelvin-Helmholtz billows) from a cloud boundary. Mammatus are not in the form of K-H billows, thus, it is proposed that the instability can trigger the formation of the protrusions, but that another process must form the protrusions into lobes. Still, the main downfall with this theory is that K-H instability occurs in a stably stratified environment, and the mammatus environment is usually at least somewhat turbulent.
Rayleigh–Taylor instability is the name given to the instability that exists between two fluids of differing densities, when the denser of the two is atop the less dense fluid. Along a cloud-base/sub-cloud interface, the denser, hydrometeor-laden air could cause mixing with the less-dense sub-cloud air. This mixing would take the form of mammatus clouds. The physical problem with this proposed method is that an instability that exists along a static interface cannot necessarily be applied to the interface between two sheared atmospheric flows.
The last proposed formation mechanism is it arises from Rayleigh-Bernard convection, where differential heating (cooling at the top and heating at the bottom) of a layer causes convective overturning. However, in this case of mammatus, the base is cooled by thermodynamic mechanisms mentioned above. As the cloud base descends, it happens on the scale of mammatus lobes, while adjacent to the lobes, there is a compensating ascent. This method has not proven to be observationally sound and is viewed as generally insubstantial.
This plenitude, plethora and pleonasm of proposed formation mechanisms shows, that the relational regulations, nonlinear frantic ness  dispersive conservative Fresnel system, jet stream atmospherics, kinematic dynamical consequentiality’s, Maurice Blanchot ambiguity, Poincare and kelvin functional s   nothing else that the mammatus cloud is generally poorly understood. Detailed observations of the cloud have been meager and usually occur only by chance, since mammatus do not pose a meteorological threat to society.
I think this sort of formation of clouds comprehension might help cloud seeding. But that is only a thought.
Tia McI
always thought those were "hail" clouds?
Love! Beauty! Fun! True....... but not beauty very happy with the beauty god gave me, inside and out:-).
I've never seen clouds like that before. I love clouds, so thank you!
Mother Nature at her best, thank you for sharing...
dude call me crazy, but does anyone else see morse code?
I live in Saskatchewan and we had an interested month of June with plenty of thunderstorms and tornadoes. I remember seeing clouds similar to this and being amazed.
Feel like popping them, but i thought.......there clouds !
I cant believe it..patti kiely
Mamatus  huh.. as in mamary gland shaped?
how wonderful....exactly wat i perceive...
Sky full of balloons! Reminds me of the movie "Up"...just waiting to see a house being tethered beyond the trees! 
Be W
o thats awesome 
The RTE news will show that Waterford boy on Skype to the two girls in Canada who put the message in the bottle eight years ago.
Wow, learned something new today.  This picture is absolutely stunning.
Clouds made of bubble wrap? Let me at them!
I was outside when this was above my house. Took a picture of it on my cell.
Wow! So beautiful :)
Wow!  It is beautiful, and I'm glad to know it's not dangerous in case I ever see it live.
This is Really Beautiful I feel like im in a bubble LOL
What an impressive shot.  Well done and thanks for sharing.
This is incredible. Looks like sometime created in a studio for a sci-fi movie. WOW. 
I would love to see this......amazing 
Pene T
Wow, I've never seen anything like this!!
I wish I could see one up close ... It might be breath-taking!
that is soo cool and very wierd at the same time
Cerys C
wow gob smacked
kwl kwl got 2 share NOT its just clounds YAWN
nice neat little rows, looks man made to me:(
I am day dreaming about you alot mami.
You should be o the Big Bang Theory
amazing you don't see things like that every day and i wonder why
Increadible...mother nature is amazing!!!! ^_^
All credit to Jehovah! Beautiful!
idk what this is but im thankful Jehovah was kind enough to let us see it 
Wendy M
Ooh giant Marshmallows, lovely
I took a photo just like this one right after a tornado came past our place! THAT was another crazy day in southern Oklahoma!!
Wow its like ready to rain with candies :)
Intestinal as hell, an illusion from my inner most, to you, from me! All there? Probley not! Recently dropped a five year old colon blocking doctor killer, make anyone happy?
I first thought those were bubbles!
....I want..... I want to touch it...
Those clouds look like a bunch of nutsacks. 
what is the name of this cloud formation? My forester friend told me this was a new formation. 
You don't wanna know what i thought those were....ok, not like that, i thought they were cotton balls
These clouds resemble the clouds I saw while jogging with my high school g-friend too many years ago in kennewick after mount saint helens erupted. Droppy and laden with ash. 
Oh, the top is upside down? The wind is eather above or below?
Eva Hun
is that for real?
OMG!!!!!! it looks like marshmallows peeking out from the clouds!
Those clouds look like white bubble wrap.  What a shot.
That pic is so cool, never seen that formation B4 anywhere.
ive never seen anything so amazing....well, almost.
but you get the point.... me likey
Thankyou Prasanna Kumar for your post at 8:56am.  Your explanation was most appreciated!!  I learned something new today! Again thankyou.
it feels like youre under the lava lamp
Wow would love to be there and see it! 😃😃😃so cool
Wow. This is amazing!
well see... we never said these were normal clouds....
It is awesome.. and scary at the same time!
Those are clouds? They look like cotton balls!
that looks awesome
Thats really cool but if i walked out my front door and saw that i wouldn't know why its like that.
This looks like one of the default Google+ pictures for "Cover Photo".
Cindy w
I've never heard of this type of cloud. Beautiful. Unique!
how the fudge balls can that be a cloud? AMAZING!!!
Jan & I saw these one when we were living in Austin 
boobie clouds gotta love them :-) <3
I was aware that these clouds formed due to turbulent air.  Thank you for this explanation of these pearl-like clouds.  BTW, if I saw clouds like these, I'd seek shelter immediately. ;-)
Its haarp.govt is shooting radio waves at the atmosphere. HAARP.....
I like this pic. I'm going to make it my wallpaper.
I would be frightened to actually see this, what a rush!
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