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Amy Shira Teitel (Vintage Space)
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Do you remember the first time we saw Mars? I don't; still love the pics!
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I thought Amy at your whole page was adorable I enjoyed it tremendously good for you
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I love what you do and thank you I am watching a book myself and I'm on Google and I found you on Google and thank you for all the response I will supply the fall the response on my page and all the other things I really appreciate it I am writing a book to you and can't wait to get it off the ground to God bless you I'm actually trying to find a good publisher right now should be able to get it off the ground if you get this message and you google me all week last do quest send me the information on quest and no in for good publisher I have been looking I have my book with me but I don't know a good publish or so he said you was publishing a book I was wondering know if you can give me that information you feel publisher and I would see if he would be interested in my book too god bless you thank you very much will guide me in the right situation thank you my name is sherry out of Oklahoma
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How does NASA talk to its deep space spacecraft? 
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yeah! But it need a sequencia other
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Voyager
June 27, 2013
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NASA's Voyager 1 Explores Final Frontier of Our 'Solar Bubble'
voyager-interstellar.jpg
PASADENA, Calif. -- Data from Voyager 1, now more than 11 billion miles (18 billion kilometers) from the sun, suggest the spacecraft is closer to becoming the first human-made object to reach interstellar space.

Research using Voyager 1 data and published in the journal Science today provides new detail on the last region the spacecraft will cross before it leaves the heliosphere, or the bubble around our sun, and enters interstellar space. Three papers describe how Voyager 1's entry into a region called the magnetic highway resulted in simultaneous observations of the highest rate so far of charged particles from outside heliosphere and the disappearance of charged particles from inside the heliosphere.

Scientists have seen two of the three signs of interstellar arrival they expected to see: charged particles disappearing as they zoom out along the solar magnetic field, and cosmic rays from far outside zooming in. Scientists have not yet seen the third sign, an abrupt change in the direction of the magnetic field, which would indicate the presence of the interstellar magnetic field.

"This strange, last region before interstellar space is coming into focus, thanks to Voyager 1, humankind's most distant scout," said Ed Stone, Voyager project scientist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. "If you looked at the cosmic ray and energetic particle data in isolation, you might think Voyager had reached interstellar space, but the team feels Voyager 1 has not yet gotten there because we are still within the domain of the sun's magnetic field."

Scientists do not know exactly how far Voyager 1 has to go to reach interstellar space. They estimate it could take several more months, or even years, to get there. The heliosphere extends at least 8 billion miles (13 billion kilometers) beyond all the planets in our solar system. It is dominated by the sun's magnetic field and an ionized wind expanding outward from the sun. Outside the heliosphere, interstellar space is filled with matter from other stars and the magnetic field present in the nearby region of the Milky Way.

Voyager 1 and its twin spacecraft, Voyager 2, were launched in 1977. They toured Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune before embarking on their interstellar mission in 1990. They now aim to leave the heliosphere. Measuring the size of the heliosphere is part of the Voyagers' mission.

The Science papers focus on observations made from May to September 2012 by Voyager 1's cosmic ray, low-energy charged particle and magnetometer instruments, with some additional charged particle data obtained through April of this year.

Voyager 2 is about 9 billion miles (15 billion kilometers) from the sun and still inside the heliosphere. Voyager 1 was about 11 billion miles (18 billion kilometers) from the sun Aug. 25 when it reached the magnetic highway, also known as the depletion region, and a connection to interstellar space. This region allows charged particles to travel into and out of the heliosphere along a smooth magnetic field line, instead of bouncing around in all directions as if trapped on local roads. For the first time in this region, scientists could detect low-energy cosmic rays that originate from dying stars.

"We saw a dramatic and rapid disappearance of the solar-originating particles. They decreased in intensity by more than 1,000 times, as if there was a huge vacuum pump at the entrance ramp onto the magnetic highway," said Stamatios Krimigis, the low-energy charged particle instrument's principal investigator at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Md. "We have never witnessed such a decrease before, except when Voyager 1 exited the giant magnetosphere of Jupiter, some 34 years ago."

Other charged particle behavior observed by Voyager 1 also indicates the spacecraft still is in a region of transition to the interstellar medium. While crossing into the new region, the charged particles originating from the heliosphere that decreased most quickly were those shooting straightest along solar magnetic field lines. Particles moving perpendicular to the magnetic field did not decrease as quickly. However, cosmic rays moving along the field lines in the magnetic highway region were somewhat more populous than those moving perpendicular to the field. In interstellar space, the direction of the moving charged particles is not expected to matter.

In the span of about 24 hours, the magnetic field originating from the sun also began piling up, like cars backed up on a freeway exit ramp. But scientists were able to quantify that the magnetic field barely changed direction -- by no more than 2 degrees. "

A day made such a difference in this region with the magnetic field suddenly doubling and becoming extraordinarily smooth," said Leonard Burlaga, the lead author of one of the papers, and based at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "But since there was no significant change in the magnetic field direction, we're still observing the field lines originating at the sun."

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in Pasadena, Calif., built and operates the Voyager spacecraft. California Institute of Technology in Pasadena manages JPL for NASA. The Voyager missions are a part of NASA's Heliophysics System Observatory, sponsored by the Heliophysics Division of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

For more information about the Voyager spacecraft mission, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/voyager and http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov .

Jia-Rui C. Cook
818-354-0850
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
jccook@jpl.nasa.gov

Steve Cole
202-358-0918
NASA Headquarters, Washington
stephen.e.cole@nasa.gov

2013-209

Last Updated: July 7, 2015
Editor: Sarah Loff
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Amy Shira Teitel (Vintage Space)

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Quick note, guys. Frank O'Brien who wrote "The Apollo Guidance Computer" pointed out a little error on my part. Gimbal lock on Apollo was possible with the inner and outer gimbal lying on the same plane, the gimbal mounted on the central platform and the one mounted to the spacecraft. Those are the two you really don't want to line up!
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+Dave Manley Yeah, it did. All the Apollo astronauts hated the 3 gimbal system on Apollo.
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I don't know for sure +marc strong, but I would imagine modern spacecraft use something akin to the electronic accelerometers and gyroscopes in your smartphone (albeit beefed up and rad. hardened to survive the space environment).  There's also likely to be multiple redundant duplicates to ensure reliability.
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Have her in circles
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+lesnyk255 I believe the astronauts thought that the ejections seats were NOT adequate. Information about the aborted launch or Gemini 6A was that because the engine had started, then shut down, Wally Schirra was supposed to perform the abort and eject them. He didn't, partially because he didn't feel any motion of the rocket, and partly because of his uncertainty with whether the astronauts would survive a horizontal ejection from a 100% oxygen atmosphere.
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+Amy Shira Teitel This channel is amazing! How does this video not have 100x the views and this channel 100x the subs?!
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Amy Shira Teitel (Vintage Space)

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Hey guys! So talking to New Horizons PI Alan Stern last night, he pointed out that I misunderstood him about the spacecraft's post-Pluto plans. There are two Kuiper Belt Objects the spacecraft could reach, and the team will pick one based on ease of access (i.e. things like how to get there using a few consumables as possible) and from there will consider a possible next target. Still, one KBO or two, it's going to be awesome!
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realy
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52 minutes after #Apollo13 launched, Swigert had "all balls." This is why.
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+Amy Shira Teitel Amy all this space history is real real groovy but I'm more interested in the future. Specifically "Our" future as in yours and mine. :) eh? it was a little cute
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Amy Shira Teitel (Vintage Space)

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And yes, guys, that's a very agile Pete weaving around my desk in the background!
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+Amy Shira Teitel Cool cat! Intelligence is so sexy! I mean it's hot...or you're hot...I mean...yeah
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very good
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People
Have her in circles
32,935 people
Charlie Lewis's profile photo
mian jaan's profile photo
Louis Polichnia's profile photo
Isaac Kuo's profile photo
Edmilson Ribeiro's profile photo
Ragunathan Angie's profile photo
BUNGOMA INTERFAITH's profile photo
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Vasudevan Mukunth's profile photo
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Space writer, freelancer, blogger
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  • Discovery News
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Introduction
I'm a writer and blogger - I blog at Vintage Space, study spaceflight history, and freelance whenever possible. I'm a space writer (aspiring to make that my professional title, somehow) because I love it. I finished a Master's degree in 2010 and realized that I don't like academic history and I don't want to be an academic historian. I've always wanted to write books and bring space science to the public in a way that's fun and accessible. 

I've been forging my own path for the last year. 

You can expect largely space-related posts from me: neat photos and archive movies from the early space age, cool articles, and a stream of updates from my blog. 

I moonlight as a personal trainer, but it's highly unlikely I'll be posting fitness tips. Unless they come from astronaut training logs. 

I'm also a Canadian currently living in the US, which has really brought out my accent, eh?

I write for a number of outlets, but the opinions on my page are strictly my own.
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